Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)




For example, at the time of purchasing the jewels, several thoughts prevail but when we put it on the body then the thought activity stops and only the joy of wearing it is experienced.  In this way, the state of Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (self-realization devoid of rambling state of thoughts) is evolved through the thinking process (Savikalpa state).


And the knowledge, which was functioning through five senses and mind, the same knowledge, by getting disengaged from all directions, got engrossed in the nature of self-soul only in this Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (rambleless state of self-realization).  Because that knowledge is of Kshayopashama form (i.e. knowledge evolved by the destruction cum subsidence state of knowledge-obscuring karma).  Therefore, in one unit of time, it knows only one knowable object. When that knowledge got engaged in the nature of the self-soul, then the knowing of other (non-self) objects automatically stopped.  There such a state is evolved that although externally there may be various types of disturbances like noise, etc., yet the meditatior of the nature of self-soul.  And by disappearance of the thoughts of Nayas (viewpoints) etc., the Shruta-Jnana (scriptural knowledge) also got engrossed in the nature of self-soul.


Such description is found in Atma-Khyati named commentary of Samyasara (Verse Gatha No. 144) and in the book Atmaavalokana etc.  Therefore, Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (rambleless state of self-realization) is called supersensory.  Because the role of senses is to be instrumental in knowing touch, taste, smell, color, words (sound); the same is not found here (in the state of self-realization); and the role of mind is to be instrumental in various types of thoughts; that also is not here.  Therefore, although the same knowledge which was functioning through senses and mind, is functioning now in the state of self-realization also, nevertheless, this knowledge is called supersensory.


And this Swaanubhava (self-realization) is also termed to have evolved through mind, because in this realization only Mati-Jnana (sensory knowledge) and Shruta-Jnana (scriptural knowledge) are functioning; no other knowledge is found here.


The Mati & Shruta Jnana do not function without the instrumentality of senses and mind.  So here (in the state of self-realization) the senses have no role because the object of senses is material substance only.  Here (in self-realization) the knowledge is functioning through the mind because the object of mind is immaterial substances also.  Here, the knowledge functioning through the mind and getting engrossed in the nature of self-soul, is absolved from other thoughts.  Therefore, this (self-realization) is stated to be functioning through the mind. Aikagrchintanirodho dhyanam Concentration of thought on one particular object, by turning it away from several objects, is meditation from several objects, is meditation; such differntia of meditation also is possible in this state of self-realization.


Further, it is stated in the following verse of Samyasara Natak:


Vastu vicharat dhyavataen man pavae vishram

Ras svadat sukh oopjae , anubhav yako nam


Meaning: On meditating upon the nature of the substance the mind gets rest (i.e., Upayoga gets relaxed after ascertainment of the self-substance) and by engrossment of Upayoga in the self-soul, spiritual bliss is experienced.  Such a state is called the state of self-realization.


In this way, the engrossment of Upayoga in the nature of self-soul is not without the instrumentality of mind.  Hence, Swaanubhava (self-realization) is also said to have generated though mind.  Thus, there is no contradiction in stating self-realization to be Ateendriya, supersensory, or to be generated through mind.  The difference lies in the viewpoints.


Further, you wrote that �The soul is Ateendriya (supersensory), therefore, it can be realized by supersensory means only�.  But he mind is instrumental in knowing the immaterial substances also, because the object of Mati-Shrut Jnana is stated to be all (material & immaterial) substances also, because the object of Mati-Shrut Jnana is stated in Tattvarthasutra also:


Matishruteenirbando dravyaishvasrvpyishu 


i.e., the range of sensory knowledge and scriptural knowledge extends to all the six substances but not to all their modes.


Further you have raised the question of  Pratyaksha (direct) and Paroksha (indirect) in context with right belief.  But direct and indirect are not the kinds of Samyaktva (right belief).  In fourth Gunasthana, Kshayika Samyaktva (destruction type of right belief) similar to that of Siddha (liberated soul) can be evolved, therefore, Samyaktva is only of right belief form.  That Jiva can be found even indulging in auspicious-inauspicious acts.  Hence your statement that the Nishchaya Samyaktva (real right belief) is Pratyaksha (direct) and Vyavahara Samyaktva (conventional right belief) is Paroksha (indirect), is not correct.  Samyaktva is of three kinds:  there Upashama Samyaktva (subsidential type of right belief) and Kshayika Samyaktva (destruction type of right belief) both re pure (free from any impurity) because they are devoid of the rise of Mithyatva (faith-deluding karma) and the Kshayopashama Samyaktva is having some blemish because it is found with the rise of  Samyaktva-Mohaniya.  But there are no Pratyaksha (direct) & Paroksha (indirect) kinds of Samyaktva.


Whether a true believer having Kshayika Samyaktva is found indulging in auspicious-inauspicious acts or is engrossed in self-realization, the quality of right belief in both the states is the same.  Therefore, it should be known that the direct-indirect are not the kinds of Samyagdarshan (right belief).


Further, the direct-indirect (Pratyaksha-Paroksha) are the kinds of Pramana (comprehensive knowledge) and Pramana is right knowledge.  Hence Mati-Jnana & Shruta-Jnana are Paroksha Pramana (indirect comprehensive knowledge�s; Avadhi (clairvoyance), Manah Paryaya (telepathy) and Kewal-Jnan (omniscience) are Pratyaksha-Pramana (direct comprehensive knowledge�s) .  Adhaiproksham, prtyakshmnyat. Tatvarth sutra 1/11-12 This is the statement in Tattvarthasutra.  And in books of logic Spashtpratibhasatmkan pratyakshamspasht proksham, such differentia of direct (Pratyaksha) and indirect (Paroksha) is described.


That knowledge which knows its object (knowable) clearly well in its true form, is direct (Pratyaksha) and that which does not know its object clearly well, is indirect (Paroksha).  There the range of objects (knowables) of sensory knowledge and scriptural knowledge are many but they cannot know even one knowable fully.  Therefore, these are called indirect knowledge�s and the objects (knowables) of  Avadhi Jnana (clairvoyance) and Manah Paryaya Jnan (telepathy) are less, nevertheless, each one knows its object clearly well; hence, both are Desha_Pratyaksha (partially direct) and Kewal-Jnana (omniscience) knows all knowables independently and clearly; therefore, it is Sarva-Pratyaksha (fully direct).


The direct (Pratyaksha) knowledge is of two kinds: (I) Paramartha Pratyaksha (Independent direct knowledge) and (ii) Samvyavaharika Pratyaksha (Dependent direct knowledge).


There Avadhi (clairvoyance), Manah Paryaya (telepathy) and Kewal Jnana (omniscience) know their objects independently clearly.  Therefore, those are Parmarthika Pratyaksha (independent direct knowledge).  And colors, etc. are known through eyes, etc.; there, it is stated conventionally that �He knew colors, etc. directly�.  Here partial clarity is also found.  Therefore, these are called Samvyavaharika-Pratyksha; but if an object has different mixed colors, then those are not known clearly by the eyes; that is why, such knowledge is not called Parmartha-Pratyaksha (independent direct knowledge). 


Further, the Paroksha Pramana (indirect comprehensive knowledge is of five kinds:-


1.  Smriti (Remembrance)

2.  Pratyabhijnana (Recognition)

3.  Tarka (Logic)

4.  Anumana (Inference) and

5.  Agama (Knowledge of scriptures).


There, knowing that object through remembrance which was known earlier , is Smriti (Remembrance)


Recognizing an object by illustration is Pratyabhi-jnana (Recognition).


The knowledge of an object deduced from its cause is Anumana (inference).


The knowledge derived through scriptures (Agama) is Agama. 


Such are the kinds of Pratyksha-Paroksha Pramana (direct-indirect knowledge of a substance).


In this state of self-realization, the soul is known through Shruta-Jnana (scriptural knowledge).   The evolution of  Shruta-Jnana is preceded by Mati-Jnana and Shruta-Jnana are Paroksha (indirect knowledges).  Hence, here the knowledge of soul is not Pratyaksha (direct).  Further, the object of Avadhi (clairvoyance) and Manah-Paryaya-Jnana (telepathy) is material substance only and the Kewala-Jnana (omniscience) is not possessed of by the Chhadmastha (non-omniscients).  Therefore, in the state of self-realization, the soul is not known by Avadhi, Manah-Paryaya and Kewal-Jnana.  And here the soul is not known clearly well.  Therefore, fully independent  direct knowledge (Parmarthika-Pratyakshapana) is in no way possible here.


Further, as we know the colors, etc. thorough eyes., similarly, the soul�s innumerable Pradeshas (spatial units) etc. are not known even with partial clarity; hence conventional independent direct knowledge (Samvyavaharika-Partyakshapana) is also not possible here.


Here the soul is realized through scripture-inference, etc. types of indirect knowledge.  By knowing the true nature of soul as described in Jaina scripture, he engrosses his Upayoga in it; therefore, Agama (knowledge derived from scriptures) is called Paroksha )ramana.  Or �I am soul only because I am embodiment of knowledge.  Wherever there is knowledge, there is soul (Atma) as are Siddhas (liberated souls) etc. and where there is no soul, knowledge is also not  there, as in the case of dead body (carcass) etc.� In this way, by ascertaining the soul-substance through inference (Anumana) he engrosses his Upayoga in it.  Therefore, inference (Anumana) is called Paroksha Pramana.  Or the soul-substance which is known through scripture-inference, etc., by remembering the same, he engrosses his Upayoga in it.  So it is called Smriti.  Thus in various ways in the state of self-realization, the soul is known through Paroksha-Pramana (indirect knowledge) only.  There, first the soul is known (as it is), thereafter, the Upayoga gets engrossed in the same nature of  the self-soul.  Nothing social is known in the state of engrossment of Upayoga in the self-soul.