For example, at the
time of purchasing the jewels, several thoughts prevail but when we put it on
the body then the thought activity stops and only the joy of wearing it is
experienced. In this way, the state of Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (self-realization
devoid of rambling state of thoughts) is evolved through the thinking process
And the knowledge,
which was functioning through five senses and mind, the same knowledge, by
getting disengaged from all directions, got engrossed in the nature of
self-soul only in this Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (rambleless state of
self-realization). Because that knowledge is of Kshayopashama form (i.e.
knowledge evolved by the destruction cum subsidence state of
knowledge-obscuring karma). Therefore, in one unit of time, it knows only one
knowable object. When that knowledge got engaged in the nature of the
self-soul, then the knowing of other (non-self) objects automatically
stopped. There such a state is evolved that although externally there may be
various types of disturbances like noise, etc., yet the meditatior of the
nature of self-soul. And by disappearance of the thoughts of Nayas
(viewpoints) etc., the Shruta-Jnana (scriptural knowledge) also got engrossed
in the nature of self-soul.
Such description is
found in Atma-Khyati named commentary of Samyasara (Verse Gatha No. 144) and
in the book Atmaavalokana etc. Therefore, Nirvikalpa-Anubhava (rambleless
state of self-realization) is called supersensory. Because the role of senses
is to be instrumental in knowing touch, taste, smell, color, words (sound);
the same is not found here (in the state of self-realization); and the role of
mind is to be instrumental in various types of thoughts; that also is not
here. Therefore, although the same knowledge which was functioning through
senses and mind, is functioning now in the state of self-realization also,
nevertheless, this knowledge is called supersensory.
And this Swaanubhava
(self-realization) is also termed to have evolved through mind, because in
this realization only Mati-Jnana (sensory knowledge) and Shruta-Jnana
(scriptural knowledge) are functioning; no other knowledge is found here.
The Mati & Shruta
Jnana do not function without the instrumentality of senses and mind. So here
(in the state of self-realization) the senses have no role because the object
of senses is material substance only. Here (in self-realization) the
knowledge is functioning through the mind because the object of mind is
immaterial substances also. Here, the knowledge functioning through the mind
and getting engrossed in the nature of self-soul, is absolved from other
thoughts. Therefore, this (self-realization) is stated to be functioning
through the mind. Aikagrchintanirodho dhyanam Concentration of thought
on one particular object, by turning it away from several objects, is
meditation from several objects, is meditation; such differntia of meditation
also is possible in this state of self-realization.
Further, it is stated
in the following verse of Samyasara Natak:
dhyavataen man pavae vishram
Ras svadat sukh
oopjae , anubhav yako nam
Meaning: On meditating
upon the nature of the substance the mind gets rest (i.e., Upayoga gets
relaxed after ascertainment of the self-substance) and by engrossment of
Upayoga in the self-soul, spiritual bliss is experienced. Such a state is
called the state of self-realization.
In this way, the
engrossment of Upayoga in the nature of self-soul is not without the
instrumentality of mind. Hence, Swaanubhava (self-realization) is also said
to have generated though mind. Thus, there is no contradiction in stating
self-realization to be Ateendriya, supersensory, or to be generated through
mind. The difference lies in the viewpoints.
Further, you wrote
that �The soul is Ateendriya (supersensory), therefore, it can be realized by
supersensory means only�. But he mind is instrumental in knowing the
immaterial substances also, because the object of Mati-Shrut Jnana is stated
to be all (material & immaterial) substances also, because the object of
Mati-Shrut Jnana is stated in Tattvarthasutra also:
i.e., the range of
sensory knowledge and scriptural knowledge extends to all the six substances
but not to all their modes.
Further you have
raised the question of Pratyaksha (direct) and Paroksha (indirect) in context
with right belief. But direct and indirect are not the kinds of Samyaktva
(right belief). In fourth Gunasthana, Kshayika Samyaktva (destruction type of
right belief) similar to that of Siddha (liberated soul) can be evolved,
therefore, Samyaktva is only of right belief form. That Jiva can be found
even indulging in auspicious-inauspicious acts. Hence your statement that the
Nishchaya Samyaktva (real right belief) is Pratyaksha (direct) and Vyavahara
Samyaktva (conventional right belief) is Paroksha (indirect), is not correct.
Samyaktva is of three kinds: there Upashama Samyaktva (subsidential type of
right belief) and Kshayika Samyaktva (destruction type of right belief) both
re pure (free from any impurity) because they are devoid of the rise of
Mithyatva (faith-deluding karma) and the Kshayopashama Samyaktva is having
some blemish because it is found with the rise of Samyaktva-Mohaniya. But
there are no Pratyaksha (direct) & Paroksha (indirect) kinds of Samyaktva.
Whether a true
believer having Kshayika Samyaktva is found indulging in
auspicious-inauspicious acts or is engrossed in self-realization, the quality
of right belief in both the states is the same. Therefore, it should be known
that the direct-indirect are not the kinds of Samyagdarshan (right belief).
direct-indirect (Pratyaksha-Paroksha) are the kinds of Pramana (comprehensive
knowledge) and Pramana is right knowledge. Hence Mati-Jnana & Shruta-Jnana
are Paroksha Pramana (indirect comprehensive knowledge�s; Avadhi
(clairvoyance), Manah Paryaya (telepathy) and Kewal-Jnan (omniscience) are
Pratyaksha-Pramana (direct comprehensive knowledge�s) . Adhaiproksham,
prtyakshmnyat. Tatvarth sutra 1/11-12 This is the statement in
Tattvarthasutra. And in books of logic Spashtpratibhasatmkan
pratyakshamspasht proksham, such differentia of direct (Pratyaksha) and
indirect (Paroksha) is described.
That knowledge which
knows its object (knowable) clearly well in its true form, is direct (Pratyaksha)
and that which does not know its object clearly well, is indirect (Paroksha).
There the range of objects (knowables) of sensory knowledge and scriptural
knowledge are many but they cannot know even one knowable fully. Therefore,
these are called indirect knowledge�s and the objects (knowables) of Avadhi
Jnana (clairvoyance) and Manah Paryaya Jnan (telepathy) are less,
nevertheless, each one knows its object clearly well; hence, both are
Desha_Pratyaksha (partially direct) and Kewal-Jnana (omniscience) knows all
knowables independently and clearly; therefore, it is Sarva-Pratyaksha (fully
The direct (Pratyaksha)
knowledge is of two kinds: (I) Paramartha Pratyaksha (Independent direct
knowledge) and (ii) Samvyavaharika Pratyaksha (Dependent direct knowledge).
(clairvoyance), Manah Paryaya (telepathy) and Kewal Jnana (omniscience) know
their objects independently clearly. Therefore, those are Parmarthika
Pratyaksha (independent direct knowledge). And colors, etc. are known through
eyes, etc.; there, it is stated conventionally that �He knew colors, etc.
directly�. Here partial clarity is also found. Therefore, these are called
Samvyavaharika-Pratyksha; but if an object has different mixed colors, then
those are not known clearly by the eyes; that is why, such knowledge is not
called Parmartha-Pratyaksha (independent direct knowledge).
Further, the Paroksha
Pramana (indirect comprehensive knowledge is of five kinds:-
3. Tarka (Logic)
5. Agama (Knowledge
There, knowing that
object through remembrance which was known earlier , is Smriti (Remembrance)
Recognizing an object
by illustration is Pratyabhi-jnana (Recognition).
The knowledge of an
object deduced from its cause is Anumana (inference).
The knowledge derived
through scriptures (Agama) is Agama.
Such are the kinds of
Pratyksha-Paroksha Pramana (direct-indirect knowledge of a substance).
In this state of
self-realization, the soul is known through Shruta-Jnana (scriptural
knowledge). The evolution of Shruta-Jnana is preceded by Mati-Jnana and
Shruta-Jnana are Paroksha (indirect knowledges). Hence, here the knowledge of
soul is not Pratyaksha (direct). Further, the object of Avadhi (clairvoyance)
and Manah-Paryaya-Jnana (telepathy) is material substance only and the
Kewala-Jnana (omniscience) is not possessed of by the Chhadmastha (non-omniscients).
Therefore, in the state of self-realization, the soul is not known by Avadhi,
Manah-Paryaya and Kewal-Jnana. And here the soul is not known clearly well.
Therefore, fully independent direct knowledge (Parmarthika-Pratyakshapana) is
in no way possible here.
Further, as we know
the colors, etc. thorough eyes., similarly, the soul�s innumerable Pradeshas
(spatial units) etc. are not known even with partial clarity; hence
conventional independent direct knowledge (Samvyavaharika-Partyakshapana) is
also not possible here.
Here the soul is
realized through scripture-inference, etc. types of indirect knowledge. By
knowing the true nature of soul as described in Jaina scripture, he engrosses
his Upayoga in it; therefore, Agama (knowledge derived from scriptures) is
called Paroksha )ramana. Or �I am soul only because I am embodiment of
knowledge. Wherever there is knowledge, there is soul (Atma) as are Siddhas
(liberated souls) etc. and where there is no soul, knowledge is also not
there, as in the case of dead body (carcass) etc.� In this way, by
ascertaining the soul-substance through inference (Anumana) he engrosses his
Upayoga in it. Therefore, inference (Anumana) is called Paroksha Pramana. Or
the soul-substance which is known through scripture-inference, etc., by
remembering the same, he engrosses his Upayoga in it. So it is called Smriti.
Thus in various ways in the state of self-realization, the soul is known
through Paroksha-Pramana (indirect knowledge) only. There, first the soul is
known (as it is), thereafter, the Upayoga gets engrossed in the same nature
of the self-soul. Nothing social is known in the state of engrossment of
Upayoga in the self-soul.