Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Mundane Existence



Obscuring (Ghati) & Non-obscuring (Aghati) Karmas and their Function


 Further those Karmas are of eight types classified into Jnanavaranr, etc. Owing to the instrumental cause of four Ghati Karmas, the intrinsic nature of soul gets obscured. Owing to the instrumentality of Jnanavarana (knowledge obscuring) -Darshanavarana (perception obscuring) type of Karmas, the knowledge and perception nature of soul does not get manifested; only according to the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) state of these Karmas, the knowledge and perception remain partially manifested. And owing to the instrumentality of Mohaniya (deluding) Karma, the dispositions which are not the true nature of the Jiva (soul), such as misbelieve, anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc., passions get manifested.  And owing to the instrumentality of Antaraya (obstructive) Karma, the nature of the soul, Virya (spiritual power) of the order of accepting asceticism does not get manifested; according to its Kshayopashama only partial spiritual power (Virya) remains manifested.


 Thus owing to the instrumentality of Ghati Karmas, the intrinsic nature of the soul is being obscured from eternity. It is not so that originally the soul was intrinsically in pure state and afterwards became impure due to the instrumentality of Karmas, resulting in the destruction of pure nature.


Question: Destruction is the name of annihilation, so, that which existed earlier, could be stated to have been annihilated. Here, when there is no existence of intrinsic nature, what has been then destroyed?


Answer: The soul possesses eternally such an intrinsic power that if the instrumental cause of Karmas be not there then the Jiva (soul) would be found with the manifestation of omniscience, etc., form of his intrinsic nature but since eternity the bondage of Karmas is found, therefore, the manifestation of that capacity has never been there.  Hence, from inherent capacity point of view, the intrinsic nature does exist; only from the standpoint of not letting it to manifest, it is said to have been destroyed.


And there are four kinds of Aghati Karmas owing to the instrumental cause of which the soul comes in contact with external things.  There, due to Vedniya Karma (feeling producing Karma) various other (non-self) things acting as instrumental cause of happiness and misery get associated either in the body or outside the body; due to Ayu (life) Karma, the bondage with the present body does not get released till the expiry of its duration; due to Nama-Karma (physique making Karma) the Gati (state of embodied form of existence), Jati (the class of beings), the body, etc. are produced and due to Gotra-Karma (status determining Karma) one attains high or low status.


Thus by Aghati Karmas the external things get assembled. In their presence, due to the association of the rise of Moha (deluding Karma), Jiva becomes happy and miserable. And due to bondage with the body, etc., the immaterial intrinsic characteristic, etc., of the soul do not function as per their nature. For example, if someone catches the body then the soul also gets caught. Moreover, so long as the rise of Karmas continues, till then the association of external things remains as it is; does not become otherwise.  Such should be known the instrumentality of these Aghati Karmas.


Destruction of Jiva's Natural Functioning and

Assembling of External Things by Strengthless Material Karma


Question: Karmas are inanimate and are not strong; how is then the destruction of Jiva's natural functioning and assembling of external things possible through them?


Answer: If karma by acting itself as a doer destroys the nature of the soul and causes association of external things effortful, then karma should possess sentience and strength. But it is not so; just cause and effect relationship (Nimitta-Naimittika Sambandha) (between them) is a natural occurrence. When the operative stage of those Karmas arises, at that time the soul of its own does not function in his natural state, rather functions alienly and the other things too are found functioning in a related manner.


For Example: Mohandhool (an enchanting type of dust) is found lying on the head of some person due to which that person has become mad; there that Mohandhool was neither having knowledge nor strength but madness appears to have been caused by that Mohandhool only. There the Mohandhool is only a Nimitta and the person of his own becomes mad. Such only exists Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relation-ship.


Further, just as at the time of sunrise Chakwa-Chakwi (the male & female birds of duck family) meet together, (but) there in the night nobody has separated them forcedly out of jealousy and in the day time nobody has brought them together out of compassion; rather they meet on their own due to Nimitta of sun-rise. Such only is the functioning of Nimitta-Naimittika. In the same way the Nimitta-Naimittika functioning of Karmas should be known. Such is the state of soul owing to the rise of Karmas.


Process of New Bondage


 `How is new bondage caused' is being clarified. The portion of light of the sun which is not perceptible due to the layers of clouds, that much is absent (unmanifested) in that time. And owing to the rarefaction of the layers of clouds, the light which is manifesting, is the part of sun's nature, is not produced by clouds. Similarly, Jnan (knowledge), Darshan (perception) and Virya (power) is the nature of soul; the portion of it which owing to the instrumentality of Jnanavarana, Darshanavarana and Antaraya Karmas is not manifesting, that much is absent (unmanifested) in that time. And owing to the Kshayopashams (destruction cum subsidence) state of those Karmas that part of Jnan, Darshan, Virya which is manifesting, all that is the part of soul's nature and is not a contrary (alien) disposition produced by Karmas. So, right from eternity, such a manifested portion of soul's intrinsic nature never comes to an end.  Only through this (inherent faculty) the consciousness of the soul is ascertained that the substance possessing the power of knowing and seeing is the soul only.


 And the bondage of new Karmas does not take place due to this nature (of soul); for, if the soul's nature itself be the cause of bondage, how could then the release from bondage be possible? Moreover, owing to the rise of those Karmas, the part of Jnan, Darshan, Virya attributes which is not manifesting, that also is not the cause of bondage, for that which itself is not existing how can it be the cause for others (bondage)? Therefore, the dispositions produced due to Nimitta of Jnanavarana, Darshanavarana and Antaraya-Karmas are not the cause of new bondage of Karmas.


Further, owing to the rise of Mohaniya Karma, the perverse belief in the form of untrue faith and passions, anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc, are evolved in the soul.  All those dispositions are although found existing in the state of soul, are not separate from soul, Jiva himself is the doer of them, those are assuredly the functional deeds of Jiva, nevertheless, their manifestation is only due to Nimitta of Moha- Karma.  These (alien dispositions) come to an end on elimination of instrumentality of karma.  Therefore, these are not Jiva's own nature but are the contrary dispositions. And due to those (alien) disposition new bondage of Karmas takes place; hence the dispositions manifesting due to rise of Moha-Karma are the cause of karmic bondage.


And owing to rise of Aghati Karmas, external things are met with; among them the physique, etc., get bonded in one (intermingled) form with Jiva-Pradeshas (spatial units of soul) by occupying the same one region (as that of the soul); and wealth, family etc., are totally separate from soul, therefore, all those are not the cause of bondage; for, the other (non-self) substances do not cause bondage, but in those objects the soul develops the feeling of mineness and perverse belief, etc.  This alone is to be known as the cause of bondage.


Yoga (Vibratory Activity) the Cause of Prakriti Bandh (Type-Bondage) and Pradesh Bandh (Space - Bondage)


 Further, it should be known that owing to rise of Nama-Karma (physique-making Karma), body, organ of speech and mind are created; due to Nimitta (instrumentality) of their movement, the space-points (Pradeshas) of soul vibrate and by virtue of it soul attains the power of getting into one bonded form with the species of karmic matter. This is termed as yoga (vibratory activity).  Due to its Nimitta at each moment, the inflow of infinite atoms transformable into karmic form, takes place.  If Yoga is feeble then inflow of atoms is less and if Yoga is intense then inflow of atoms is more. Further, the atoms of matter that are absorbed in one Samaya (an unit of time) get divided into Jnanavarana, etc., main- types and their subtypes (species) of Karmas as are stated in scripture.  According to that division atoms get transformed into those types (species) of Karmas of their own.


Further, Yoga is of two types: Auspicious Activity (Shubha Yoga) and Inauspicious Activity (Ashubha Yoga).  Inclination through mind, speech and body in pious acts is called Shubha-Yoga and inclination in impious acts is called Ashubha Yoga. Whether there be Shubha Yoga or Ashubha Yoga, without attaining right belief (Samyaktva) bondage of all sorts of species of Ghati Karmas continues incessantly. Even for a single moment bondage of any species of Karmas does not stop.  However, the specific point is that in the pair of Hasya-Shoka (laughter and lamentation), Rati-Arati (liking and disliking) and three types of sex-passions of Mohaniya (deluding) Karma in one time only in each group gets bonded.


Further, in the species of Aghati Karmas, during Shubha Yoga, Sata Vedniya (pleasure producing Karma) etc., auspicious species of Karmas, get bonded and during Ashubha Yoga Asata Vedniya (pain producing Karmas) etc., inauspicious species of Karmas get bonded and during Mishra Yoga (mixed auspicious- inauspicious activity) some auspicious and some inauspicious species of Aghati Karmas get bonded.


Thus, the inflow of Karmas takes place due to instrumentality of Yoga (Vibratory activity).  Hence, Yoga is Asrava (influx).  And the (quantity of) atoms of karmic matter so attracted through that Yoga is called Pradesha; thus, the atoms so bonded get divided into main types and sub-types of Karmas, therefore it should be known that space-bondage and type-bondage are caused by Yoga.