Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

Nature of Mundane Existence

 

 

Duration & Fruition Bondage caused by Passions                       

 

 Further, wrong belief (mithyatv) and anger, etc., dispositions are evolved due to the rise of Moha (deluding karma); all these (dispositions) are collectively termed as Kasha (passions).  Due to that (passion) the duration bondage (sthiti-Bandh) of those karmic species takes place. Out of the total duration so bonded, leaving aside the Abadhakal (the period of Karmas lying bonded in inoperative state), afterwards, till the bonded duration ends, every moment the rise (Udaya) of that Prakriti (particular species of Karma) continues.  Excepting the Ayu Karma of celestial beings, human beings and subhuman beings (animals, etc.), all the other species of Ghatia and Aghatia Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of intense passion.  And these three types of Ayu Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of feeble passion and with less duration in the state of intense passion.  And these three types of Ayu Karmas get bonded with more duration in the state of feeble passion and with less duration in the state of intense passion.

 

And the passion (kashaya) is also the instrumental cause for the fruition power in those species of Karmas.  At the time of their rise, the Karmic-species produce more or less effect according to their fruition bondage.  In all the species of Ghati Karmas, and in the inauspicious (Papa) species of Aghati Karmas the fruition bondage is caused more in the state of high-passion and in the auspicious species (of Aghati Karmas) intense fruition bondage takes place in the state of low-passion and less fruition bondage in the state of high-passion.

 

In this way, duration and fruition bondage is governed by passions.  Therefore, it should be known that passions are instrumental cause of duration bondage and fruition bondage.

 

As, even if wine is more in quantity and it has less intoxicating power for lesser period then that wine is of poor quality and even if wine is less in quantity and it has more intoxicating power for larger period then that wine is of strong quality; similarly, even if the atoms of species of Karmas are more in quantity and those have less fruition power for lesser period then those species of Karmas are less effcetive; and even if the atoms of species of Karmas are less in quantity and those have more fruition power for longer period then those species of Karmas are more effective.

 

Hence, the type-bondage and space-bondage resulting from Yogas are not strong.  Only duration bondage and fruition bondage caused by passions are strong.  Therefore, passions should be known as the prime cause of bondage.  Those who do not want to get bound, should not indulge in passions.

 

Transformation of Insentient Matter-particles

 (Atoms) into Appropriate Species of Karmas

 

Now, here some raises a question that the matter-particles are inanimate and are devoid of knowledge; how do they then undergo transformation into appropriate species of Karmas?

 

 Answer: As on getting hungry, the mass of matter-particles of food swallowed through mouth gets transformed into bodily constitutes like blood, flesh, semen, etc., and the atoms (particles) of that food (morsel) get appropriately distributed in the form of some bodily constituents in a lesser measure and in the form of some bodily constituents in a greater measure.  And in them, many atoms remain bonded for quite long duration and many for a short duration.  Further, in those atoms many (atoms) possess greater power of producing their effect and many have less power.  In this process none of the mass of matter-particles of food know that it should get transformed in this particular way. Moreover, there is no one to motivate them in this transformation; such type of Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relationship is existing and owing to which such transformation takes place.

 

Similarly, on the rise of passions the mass  of matter in Karma-varganas (karmic matter) so absorbed through the channel of Yoga gets transformed into Jnanavarana, etc., type of Karmas (species) and the atoms of  those Karma-varganas (Karmic-matter) get appropriately distributed into some types of Karmas (species) having less atoms and into some types of Karmas (species) having more atoms.  And in them many atoms (of some species) remain in bonded state for a longer period and many for a shorter period. And in those atoms some (atoms) possess greater potency of producing their effect and some (atoms) possess lesser potency. In this process, none of the mass of matter-particles of Karma-Varganas knows that it should get transformed in this particular way. And there is no one to motivate them in this transformation; such type of Nimitta-Naimittika (cause and effect) relationship is existing and owing to which such transformation takes place.

 

Like this, many Nimitta-Naimittika relations are taking place in this universe. As owing to Nimitta of Mantras (incantations) water, etc., attains the potency of curing disease and pebbles, etc, attain the potency of stopping snakes.  Similarly, owing to Nimitta of Jiva-Bhavas (dispositions of the soul) the Pudgala, i.e., the matter- particles (atoms) attain the potency of Jnanavarana, etc., types of Karmas.  Here if Karmas produce the effect after deliberation effortful then it ought to possess knowledge, but on meeting with an appropriate Nimitta the corresponding transformation takes place automatically, and so there is no need of knowledge.

 

Such is the set process of new bondage.

 

State of Existence of Bonded Karmas

 

 Now, the atoms which have transformed into Karmas form remain in bonded form intermingled with space-points of Jiva till they do not acquire the operative state. There, owing to Nimitta of dispositions of soul (Jiva-Bhavas) the condition of many species of Karmas also gets changed. The atoms of many different types of species of Karmas get transformed into atoms of other types of species of Karmas. And many species (of Karmas) which were bonded for longer duration with intense fruition become scant by getting decreased and many other species (of Karmas) bonded for lesser duration with the potency of feeble fruition become more by getting increased.  Thus, even the condition of atoms bonded in the past change due to Nimitta of Jiva Bhavas and if Nimitta is absent then there is no change but they remain as they were.

 

In this way, the bonded Karmas remain in existence.

 

The Ripening (Operative State) of Bonded Karmas                           

 

And when the time of rise (ripening) of species of Karmas natures then automatically according to the fruition of those species of Karmas the effect gets produced; the Karmas do not produce those effects. At the time of their ripening state, the specific effect (disposition) gets evolved; only so much is to be known the cause and effect relationship (Nimitta- Naimittika Samband). And simultaneously with their fructification the karmic form ends due to the end of fruition-power of those Karmas; these (dissociated) matter- particles get changed into other forms; this is called Sauipaka-Nirjara  (Shedding-off of Karmas on their ripening in usual course of time).

 

In this way, the Karmas shed off every moment on rise (ripening) of the same.

 

After the end of karmic power, these matter-particles, irrespective of being present in the same species of molecules or getting separated from them, become ineffective. It should be known that at each moment infinite atoms (karmic matter-particles) get  bonded with soul; the atoms so bonded in one moment (in one unit of time), leaving the period of Aabadha-kal (prior to ripening), continue coming serially into operative state (Udaya) in all the moments of their duration period. And the atoms so bonded in several moments which are capable of ripening together, come into Udaya state collectively.  The collective fruition of all those atoms (species of Karmas) gets produced at one time accordingly to their combined fruition-power.  And the atoms so bonded in several moments holding the identity as karma remain in intermingled relationship with Jiva (soul) from the time of bondage till the time of their Udaya, (rise or ripening state).

 

Thus should be known the bondage, the rise or ripening and the existence states of Karmas. Every moment the atoms (karmic species) equal to one Samaya-Prabaddha only get bonded and equal to one Samaya-Prabaddha only get dissociated (shed off). There the Karmas remain always in existence equal to one and a half Gunahani times Samaya-Prabaddha only. The details of all these will be written in the forthcoming chapter on Karmas.

 

Characteristics of Dravya-Karmas & Bhava- Karmas                     

 

 Thus, Karma is a product of infinite matter-particles in atomic form; therefore its' name is Dravya- Karma (material Karma). Due to the instrumentality of rise of Moha, impure dispositions like perverse belief, anger, etc., are caused. These are the product of Jiva's own impure dispositions; therefore, its name is Bhava-KarmaBhava-Karma is caused due to instrumentality of Dravya-Karma and Dravya-Karma's bondage is caused due to instrumentality of Bhava-Karma. Bhava-Karma from Dravya-Karma and Dravya-Karma from Bhava- Karma; thus due to mutual cause and effect relationship Jiva transmigrates in the world.

 

The specific point to be known is that due to bondage being intense or feeble or due to internal transformation, etc., or due to rise in different moments of Karmas bonded in one moment or due to rise in one moment of Karmas bonded in different moments, if in some particular moment the rise be intense then  the passions would be intense and the resulting fresh bondage would also be intense; and if in some particular moment rise be feeble then the passions would also be feeble and the fresh bondage would also be feeble. And exactly according to those intense or feeble passions the internal transformation etc., of Karmas bonded formerly in the past moments may also take place.

 

In this way, the automatic process of Dravya-Karma and Bhava- Karma has been taking place continuously from eternity.