Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Mundane Existence



Jiva's State Due to Rise of Mohaniya-Karma


Due to rise of Mohaniya-Karma the perverse-belief (mithyatv) and passionate dispositions (Kashaya Bhavas) are caused to this Jiva.


Jiva's Condition Due to the Rise of Darshan- Moha (Faith-deluding) Karma


Owing to the rise of Darshan-Moha the disposition of perverse-belief (Mithyatva-Bhava) is caused, due to which this Jiva believes the Tattvas (substance) contrary to their nature in the form of erroneous ascertainment. He does not believe as they are but believes as they are not.


 "A mass of immaterial Pradeshas (spatial units), possessor of the celebrated knowledge, etc., attributes and an eternal substance is the self (soul); and the mass of material-matter substances, devoid of celebrated knowledge, etc., attributes, which are newly associated-such bodies, etc., Pudgala are the non-self (non-soul)". And in their association the Jiva assumes various types of bodily modifications like that of human beings, animals etc. In those bodily modifications the Jiva holds the feelings of I-ness (or oneness), can not discriminate between the self and non-self. Whatever (bodily form of) modification he obtains, the same modification he treats as to be the self.


Further, in that modification the knowledge, etc., are his own attributes and the attachments, etc., are the impure (alien) dispositions produced due to the instrumentality of Karmas and complexion, etc., are the attributes of the bodies, etc., Pudgalas and the various changes that take place of atomic particles and complexion, etc., in the body, etc., are the modifications of matter (Pudgalas); he identifies all these modifications as to be his own nature; the discrimination between the nature of the self and non-self can not be possible.


And in the human, etc., embodied modifications, the association of family, wealth, etc., is met with; these are clearly different from the self and they do not act or modify under one's control; even then he feels mineness in them that these are mine. They in no way become his own. He himself considers them as his own by his own belief.  Further, on acquiring human, etc., embodied modifications, he sometimes believes the self-imagined false nature of the deity, etc., or of the Tattvas (substances), etc., but does not believe in their true nature as they really are.


Thus, owing to the rise of Darshan Moha (faith- deluding Karma) the disposition of perverse belief in the form of non- substantial faith is caused in this Jiva. Where its rise is found intense, a more perverse faith contrary to true faith is caused, when its rise is feeble then less perverse faith contrary to true faith is caused.


Jiva's Condition Due to the Rise of Charitra Moha


When Jiva indulges in passions due to the rise of Charitra- Moha (conduct-deluding Karma), then even knowingly and seemingly involves himself in anger, etc., believing the other objects beneficial and harmful.


Due to the rise of anger passion, believing other objects to be harmful, the Jiva wishes ill (evil) of them. When some temple, etc., inanimate objects appear to be disagreeable then he wants to damage them by way of breaking and destroying, etc., and when the foes etc., animate objects appear to be bad then he wishes evil of them by inflicting pain through killing, chaining or beating, etc. And if he himself or the other living and non-living objects get modified in some form which he does not like then he wishes ill of that modification by turning it into other form.


Thus the desire of wishing ill of others is caused due to (the rise of) anger-passion but its harm depends on destiny.


 And on rise of pride-passion, believing other object to be harmful, he desires to undermine it and desires to extol himself. Due to the feeling of dislike and disrespect in excreta-dust, etc., inanimate objects, he desires these to remain inferior and self to remain superior.  And by bending and keeping under his control, he wishes other people, etc., animate substances, to remain inferior and self to remain superior.  And for establishing one's own superiority in the world by decorating the body and spending money and other such acts, he desires others to remain inferior and himself to become superior. And if someone performs more commendable act in comparison to his own act then he tries to prove it inferior through some means and wants to show his inferior act as superior.


Thus owing to pride-passion, the desire to establish one's own superiority arises, but achieving superiority depends on destiny.


And on rise of deceit-passion, believing other object to be beneficial, he desires to achieve it through various fraudulent ways. He indulges in various types of frauds for obtaining jewels, gold, etc., inanimate things and for acquiring women, male-female servants, etc., animate objects. For the purpose of cheating, he assumes different poses and changes the conditions of other animate and inanimate objects. Through such forms of deception he wants to accomplish his goal.


Thus owing to the deceit-passion, one commits fraud for the accomplishment of one's goal but accomplishment of cherished goal depends on destiny.


And on rise of greed-passion, believing other objects to be beneficial, he desires to obtain them. The avarice of cloths, ornaments, wealth & grains, etc., inanimate objects, is induced and avarice of wife, sons, etc. animate objects is induced.  Further, believing some particular modification to be beneficial to self or to other animate-inanimate objects, he wants to change them into that form or modification.


Thus owing to greed-passion, the desire of obtaining beneficial objects is induced but obtaining beneficial objects depends on destiny.


Thus due to rise of anger, etc., passions, the soul undergoes (alien) modifications.


These passions (Kasha's) are of four kinds:


1. Anantanubandhi- (Intense type of anger, pride, deceit & greed-passions).


2. Apratyakhyanavarana-(Intense type of passions).


 3. Pratyakhyanavarana- (intense type of passions).


4. Samjwalana- (mild-gleaming passion).


The passions on rise of which Samyaktva (right belief) and Swaroopacharana Charitra (self-absorption conduct) can not be evolved in the soul, are called Anantanubandhi Kasha's. Those passions, on rise of which the partial right conduct (Desha-Charitra) is not evolved, and even partial abstinence can not be observed, are called Apratyakhyanavarana Kasha's. And those passions on rise of which complete right conduct (sakal-charitra) is not evolved and complete abstinence can not be observed, are called Pratyakhyanavarana Kasha's. And those passions on rise of which transgressions continue evolving in Sakal-charitra and hence perfect conduct (Yathakhyata-charitra) can not be evolved, are called Samjwalana Kashas.


In beginningless mundane existence (of Jivas), continuous rise of all these four passions is found. There, when the passion is intense in the form of Krishna-Leshya (black thought-coloration) and when the passion is feeble in the form of Shukla-Leshya (white thought-coloration) an incessant rise of all those four passions is found existing in both the conditions.  Because the divisions of Anantanubandhi, etc. passions are not from the viewpoint of their being intense or feeble but are from the viewpoint of obliterating Samyaktva (right belief), etc. On intense rise of fruition of those Karmic species, intense anger, etc (alien dispositions) are caused and on feeble rise of fruition (of these species of Karmas) feeble anger etc. are caused.


Further, on attaining the right path of liberation, the rise of last three, two and one species out of these four kinds (of conduct-deluding Karma) is found and afterwards all the four get destroyed in the end.


Further, out of anger, etc., four passions, the rise of only one passion is found in one unit of time. Also these passions have mutual cause and effect relationship. Anger turns into pride, etc., pride turns into anger, etc; that is why sometimes the difference is recognized and sometimes it is not recognized. This is to be known as the passionate form of modification.


 Further, owing to the rise of Charitra-Moha only the quasi- passions (No-kasha's) are caused; there, due to rise of laughter (Hasya) passion, believing some object beneficial, one becomes cheerful and feels happy. And due to rise of `Liking' (Rati) passion, believing something good, one makes love with it & gets attached therein. And due to rise of `disliking' (Arati) passion, believing something harmful, one feels aversion & becomes desperate. And due to rise of `sorrow' (shoka) passion, believing something harmful, one feels dejected, feels sorry.  And due to rise of fear (Bhaya) passion, believing some object harmful, one feels afraid of it & does not like its association. And due to rise of `disgust' (Jugupsa) passion, believing some object harmful, one hates it & wants to get rid of it.


Thus, one should know these laughter (Hasya), etc., six quasi- passions. And due to rise of sex-passions, the feeling or desire of co-habitation is caused. There, due to rise of `female' sex-passion, the desire of cohabiting with man is caused and due to rise of `male sex' passion, the desire of cohabiting with woman is caused, and due to rise of neuter sex-passion the desire of cohabiting with both man and woman is caused.


Thus, these are the nine types of NoKashayas (quasi- passions).  These are not so strong as anger, etc; that is why these are termed as Ishat (quasi). Here the word 'No' is to be known synonym of Ishat.  The rise of these quasi- passions is found along with the anger, etc. passions as per their rise.


In this way, due to rise of Moha (deluding karma) perverse belief and passions (alien dispositions) are caused and these (alien-dispositions) alone are the root cause of Samsara (transmigration). Because of these passions only the Jiva is unhappy at present and these only are the causes of future Karmic bondage also. The name of these very passions is also Raga (attachment)- Dwesha (aversion), Moha delusion).


There, the name of mithyatv (perverse belief) is Moha because there is absence of adversity (about the self-soul). Further the name of deceit, greed passions and laughter, liking and three kinds of sex-passions is Raga   (attachment), because love (affinity) is found there with agreeable feeling And the name of anger, pride passions and disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust is `oweIsha' (aversion), because hatred (ill- will) is found there with disagreeable feeling. And in general the name of all kinds of passions and quasi-passions is Moha (delusion), because in all these passions inadvertence is found all everywhere.