Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Mundane Existence



Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Antaraya-Karma

(Obstructive Karma


Further, due to rise of Antaraya-Karma whatever Jiva wishes does not happen. If he wishes to give donation he can not give, wishes to obtain a thing but cannot obtain, wishes to enjoy but cannot enjoy, wishes to enjoy again and again but can not do so, wishes to exert for manifesting his power of knowledge, etc., but can not get manifested.  In this way, whatever one wishes does not happen due to the rise of Antaraya-Karma (obstructive-Karma); And due to its Kshayopashama the desired thing materializes to some extent. One's desire is great but he can donate only a little; some profit is achieved and only some power of knowledge, etc., is manifested; there too several outward instrumental causes are required.


Thus Jiva's state is caused due to rise of Ghati-Karmas.


Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Vedniya-Karma

(Feeling-producing Karma)


Further, in `Aghati-Karmas' (non-destructive Karmas), due to rise of Vedniya-Karma (feeling-producing Karma), the causes of external happiness-unhappiness are produced in the body. Healthiness, powerfulness, etc., and hunger, thirst, disease, sorrow, pain, etc., the causes of happiness-unhappiness are developed in the body.  Externally pleasant season (weather), wind, etc., favorite wife, son, etc., and friend, wealth, etc., unpleasant season (weather), wind, etc., unfavorable wife, son, etc., and foe, poverty, assassination, bondage (imprisonment) become the cause of happiness-unhappiness.


In these external causes as mentioned above, many causes are of such type due to instrumentality of which the condition of body becomes the cause of happiness-unhappiness and those very causes become the cause of happiness-unhappiness. And many causes are of such type which themselves become the causes of happiness-unhappiness. The association of such cause takes place due to rise of Veniya Karma. There, the causes of happiness are met with due to rise of Sata-Veniya (pleasant feeling-producing) Karma and the cause of misery are met with due to rise of Asata Vedniya (unpleasant feeling-producing) Karma.


Here it should be known that those causes themselves do not produce happiness or misery, (but) owing to the rise of Mohakarma (deluding Karma) the soul of his own believes & feels happiness-unhappiness. Such is the relationship between the rise of Vedniya Karma and the rise of Moha-karma. When the external cause produced by Sata Vedniya is met with, then the rise of Moha-karma of the type of believing happiness is found and when the external cause produced by Asata Vedniya is met with then the rise of Moha karma of the type of believing unhappiness is found.


 And the same cause becomes the cause of happiness to someone and of unhappiness to other. For example, the type of cloth which becomes the cause of happiness to someone due to rise of Sata Vedniya, the same cloth becomes the cause of misery to someone else due to rise of Asata Vedniya. Hence, the external object is simply an instrumental cause of happiness and unhappiness. Whatever happiness-unhappiness is caused is due to Nimitta (rise) of Moha only. The disillusion monks possess many supernatural powers (Riddhis) and face afflictions (Parishahas), but the feeling of happiness-unhappiness is not caused in them. The illusion Jiva, on meeting external cause or even without meeting any cause, is assuredly found feeling happiness-unhappiness due to his own conjecture only.  There too, on meeting with that particular cause by which a highly- illusion Jiva becomes more happy- unhappy, by meeting with the same cause a less-illusion Jiva becomes less happy-unhappy.


 Therefore, the principal strong cause of happiness- unhappiness is the rise of Moha (deluding) Karma; the other external things are not strong cause; but the prime cause and effect relationship between other (non- self) objects and the dispositions of the illusion Jiva is found, due to which the illusion Jiva believes other external objects only as to be the cause of happiness-unhappiness.

In this way, the cause of happiness-unhappiness is produced due to (rise of) Vedniya-Karma.


       Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Ayu (Life) Karma


And due to rise of Ayu-karma, the duration of human, etc., embodied forms is found existing. So long as the rise of Ayu- karma continues, till then even on meeting with several diseases, etc.  (external) causes, the bondage with the body does not end. And when the rise of (species of) Ayu-karma ends, then even on making several efforts there remains no bondage with body; at the same very instant soul and body become separate.


In this world (of transmigratory existence) the cause of birth, life and death is Ayu-karma only. When rise of new Ayu-karma starts, then birth in new embodied form takes place.  And so long as the rise of Ayu-karma continues, till then life remains by existence of vitality's in that embodied form. And when the rise of Ayu-karma ends then death is caused by dissociation of vitality's in that embodied form.


One should know that such is the natural instrumentality of Ayu-karma; none else is the creator, destroyer or protector.


Further, as someone wears new dress (cloth), he keeps on wearing it for some period, then quits it and puts on other dress; similarly, Jiva occupies new body, he keeps on occupying that body for some period, then quits it and (again) occupies another body.  Therefore, birth, etc., are from bodily association point of view.


Jiva (soul) is assuredly eternal and devoid of birth, etc., never-the less, the illusion Jiva does not think of past and future, therefore, he keeps himself continuously busy in the activities concerning to the present embodied form only, believing his own existence to be only till the duration of the present embodied form.


 In this way, the duration of embodied existence due to rise of Ayu-karma is to be known.


        Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Nama-Karma

               (Physique-making Karma)


Further, due to rise of Nama-karma, Jiva attains human body, etc., (different) forms of existence and accordingly he is found in that state of existence. There, the different kinds of Trasa (mobile beings), Sthavara (immobile beings) are born. And there the soul holds Jati (class) of one-sensed beings, etc. It should be known that there exists cause and effect relationship between the rise of Jati Nama-karma and Kshayopashama of Mati-Jnanauarana Karma. The soul acquires the Jati (class of embodied form) in accordance with his Kshayopashama.


And the association of bodies takes place; the atoms of body and Pradeshas (spatial units) of the soul get bonded in one form and the soul by getting contracted or expanded becomes equal to the extent of the body. And in Nokarma from of body, the appropriate positions of different limbs and sub-limbs are found proportionately. From this only the touch, taste, etc. material senses (Dravya-Indriyas) are formed and in the heart place a material mind (Dravya-Mana) of the shape of a lotus-flowered into eight petals is found. And in the same body it self particular shape etc., particular color or complexion, etc. and grossness or subtleties, etc. are produced; thus, the atoms transformed into body form undergo such type of modifications.


Further, respiration and voice are produced; they too are the mass of Pudgala (atoms) and remain in one bonded form with the body. The Pradeshas of soul are found co-extensive in the Pudgala also. There, the respiration is (nothing but) the air. As one takes the food and discharges the excreta then only he remains alive; similarly, when one inhales external air and exhales internal air, then only the life exits. Hence, respiration is the cause of life. As bones, flesh, etc. are found in the body, similarly air is also found in the body. And as one does the work by hands, etc., similarly, he does the work by air (respiration). The morsel of food which is put in the mouth is swallowed by air, the excreta, etc., is also discharged by air.  Similarly, other things should be known. And the pulse, gastric disease etc. are also to be known as the parts of the body in air form.


 The voice is sound. As on vibrating the string of guitar, the matter molecules (Skandhas) capable of transforming into speech species get modified into lettered or non-lettered form of sound; similarly, on vibrating the palate, lip, etc., parts (of the mouth), the Pudgal-skandhas (matter-particles) taken in during Bhasha-Paryapti (accomplishment of speech- species) get modified into lettered or non-lettered form of sound.


 Further, graceful and awkward movement, etc., in embodied beings occur. Here it should be known that among the two persons chained by a common fetter, if one person wants to move and the other person also moves then movement can take place, but if one of the two remains sitting then movement can not take place and if one out of the two be strong then he might carry away the other person also.  Similarly, the soul and the body form of Pudgala (matter-particles) have one common region occupying form of bondage (eka- kshetravagaha form of bondage). There, if soul desires to make movement and Pudgala (matter of body) being devoid of the power of movement do not make movement, or if Pudgala are having power (of making movement) but the soul does not have desire (to move) then movement can not occur. And if among them, the Pudgala by acquiring power, make movement then along with it the soul, even without having any desire, makes movement. Thus happens the activity of movement, etc. And this Jiva meets with external Nimitta of defamation, etc. In this way, these acts are produced. And due to these external causes in accordance with the rise of Moha, the soul becomes happy and miserable also.


Thus, due to rise of Nama-karma, various types of formations take place of their own; none else is the creator. And the Tirthankara, etc., types (species) of Nama-karma are not found here.


Jiva's Condition Due to Rise of Gotra-Karma

(Status-determining Karma)


Due to rise of Gotra-Karma, birth in high or low caste is caused; there one gets high or low status. Owing to rise of Moha, the soul becomes happy and miserable.


In this way, the state of Jiva is found due to the instrumentality of Aghati-Karmas .


In this way, in this eternal world, the states of soul are caused due to rise of Ghati and Aghati Karmas.


�Oh Bhavya Jiva! (oh capable soul!) you should think your inner heart and see whether it is so only or not. On contemplation it would appear to be so only. If it is so then do accept that you are being afflicted since eternity by transmigration form of disease. You should make efforts to destroy it. Such meditation will bring true happiness to you".


Thus ends the 2nd Chapter describing the mundane state of existence of Jivas in this Moksha Marg Prakashak named Shastra.