Doha: So Nijbhav
sada sukhad, apnai karo prakash
Bahuvidhi bhavdukhniko karihai Sata nash
(Since) the nature of
self soul is always blissful, thou ought to emit the light of self which will
destroy the existence of the different the forms of miseries of mundane
Many types of miseries
are found in this Sansara (mundane existence); these are being narrated
here, for if there be happiness in Sansara also, why should then we
make effort for liberation from Sansara? Since there are several kinds
of miseries in this Sansara so efforts are to be made for liberation.
As a physician, by
making diagnosis of disease and describing its condition, convinces the
patient about his disease and thereafter creates interest in him for its
treatment; similarly, here also by making diagnosis of Sansara and
describing its condition, (Acharya) convinces the mundane being of his
Sansara - disease and creates interest in him for making efforts to get
rid of it.
For example, the
patient is suffering from the disease but does not know its root cause, does
not know the right treatment and also cannot bear the pain. Then, whatever
appears to be the right treatment he takes it; therefore, the misery does not
come to an end, then tormented, being helpless, he bears those pains; when the
physician tells him the root cause of pain, tells the nature of the pain,
proves all his efforts wrong, then he gets interested in making the right
effort. Similarly, the mundane being is suffering from Sansara (transmigratory
existence) but does not know its root cause, does not know the right means and
also cannot bear the miseries. Then, whatever appears the right effort he
makes it; therefore, the misery does not come to an end, then tormented, being
helpless, he bears those miseries. He is shown here the root cause of
miseries; the nature of the misery is explained and all his efforts are proved
to be wrong; then he gets interested in making the right efforts. For this
purpose this description is being made here:
Root Cause of
(A) From Karm's
Bondage Point of View
The root cause of all
miseries is wrong faith, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct. The misbelief in
Tattvas (realities) due to rise of Darshan-Moha (faith-deluding
Karma) is wrong faith (Mithya Darshan) because of it the
true-realization of the nature of substances is not possible, rather
false-realization is caused. And due to the instrumentality (Nimitta)
of that wrong faith only whatever knowledge of Kshayopashama form
exists, it is all perverse- knowledge; owing to that, right knowledge of the
nature of substances does not evolve; rather contrary knowing is caused. And
the passionate dispositions caused due to the rise of Charitra Moha
(conduct-deluding Karma) is Asanyama (wrong conduct) because of
which the Jiva does not act in accordance with the nature of the
substances, rather acts contrarily.
Thus, these false
belief etc. only are the root cause of all miseries; why is it so is being
Misery caused by
Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana and Release
Because of wrong faith
etc. Jiva can not attain discriminative knowledge of self and non-self.
The self is a soul (living substance) and the body is the mass of infinite
matter particles (Pudgala-Parvenus); by their union human, etc.
embodied forms (Paryaya) are produced, Jiva believes that
Paryaya (embodied form) to be self. The nature of soul is knowledge,
perception etc., through it a little knowing and seeing takes place and anger
etc. dispositions are evolved owing to Karmic bondage; and touch,
taste, smell, colour (complexion) is the nature of the body which is obvious
and it undergoes various modifications like becoming obese, lean etc. and
changing of touch (complexion) etc. - he knows all these as his own nature.
The functioning of
knowledge and perception takes place through senses and mind; therefore, he
believes that skin, tongue, nose, eyes, ears and mind are his organs. "I know
and see through these organs"; because of this belief, the feeling of
belonging's & affection is found in the senses.
Further, due to force
of Moha (delusion) the desire of knowing and enjoying the objects
through those senses is produced and on enjoying those objects he feels
satisfied on fulfilling of that desire and feels delighted. Just as a dog
masticates the bone, due to that its own blood starts coming out. By its taste
it believes that this is the taste of the bones; similarly, this Jiva
knows the objects due to which his knowledge gets entangled in them; taking
its taste he believes that this is the taste of objects, but the taste is not
in the objects. He himself created the desire, by knowing it himself, believed
himself to be happy; but "I am an eternal soul characterized by knowledge
(sentience)" such realization of "self being an embodiment of knowledge only"
is not there. And "I saw dance, heard melody, smelt the flowers, tasted and
touched the objects, knew the Shastra (scripture), I should know this"
- like this he possesses the realization of knowledge mixed with the objects
known; because of this the pre-dominance of objects alone is perceived. In
this way, owing to Nimitta of Moha the desire of objects is
found to this Jiva.
He has the desire of
knowing and enjoying all the objects of past, present and future. "I should
touch all, taste all, smell all, see all, hear all and know all" - so much is
the desire, but power is limited to touch, taste, smell, seeing and hearing
only such objects which come into contact with the senses; out of them only a
few are partly known and enjoyed and a few are known partly through
remembrance by mind, etc. Even this much materializes on meeting several
external causes. Hence, the desire never gets fulfilled. Such desire can only
be fulfilled on attainment of (Kevala Jnana) omniscience.
The desire does not
get fulfilled through the senses because of the state of Kshayopashama.
So, owing to Nimitta of Moha continuous desire of knowing and
enjoying concerned objects through senses persists; due to which, getting
perturbed, the Jiva is suffering from misery. So much is the misery
that even for knowing and enjoying a single object he is not even afraid of
death. As an elephant has vehement desire of embracing the artificial female
elephant, the fish of tasting of meat attached with the fisherman's stick, the
bee of enjoying the smell of lotus flower, the moths of seeing the color of
lighted lamp and the deer of hearing the melody (of music) due to which even
if instant death be sensed yet they are not afraid of it. On one hand death
was sure if the objects were enjoyed and on the other hand misery of senses
was felt to be greater if the objects were not enjoyed. Being afflicted from
the agony of these senses, all Jivas irrationally plunge into the
objects of senses just as some miserable person jumps from the top of the
mountain. Jivas earn wealth by undergoing several types of pains,
spend it for - obtaining the objects of senses and for the acquisition of
those objects they knowingly go even to such places where death is sure to
occur. They also indulge into the acts of injury, etc. and involve into
passions of anger, etc.
What can they do? The
pang of the senses becomes unbearable; hence no other idea comes to their
mind. The Indras (celestial beings) etc. are also afflicted from this
pang. They too are found very much engrossed in the objects of the senses.
Just as a person afflicted from eczema rubs the affected part engrossingly; if
there be no pain why would he rub; similarly, the (celestial beings) etc.
afflicted from the sensual disease, indulge engrossingly in the objects of
senses. If there be no pain why would they indulge in sensual objects? Such
is the sensual knowledge produced by Kshayopashama of
Jnanavarana-Darshanavarana Karmas. It acts as a cause of misery owing to
Nimitta (association) of Mithya Darshan (wrong belief), etc. in
association with desire.
Now, the means that
this Jiva adopts for getting rid of miseries, is being explained: With
the understanding that "My desire will be fulfilled by enjoying the objects
through senses", he firstly strengthens the senses by taking different types
of meals, etc. and knows thus only that if the senses are strong he will have
more power of enjoying the objects. Moreover, various external causes are
required there; he tries to acquire them.
Further, the senses
enjoy the objects on coming in contact with them. Hence, he tries to bring
about the contact of the objects with the senses through different external
resources. Thus, for the sake of gathering together different types of
garments, foods, flowers, temple ornaments, etc. and songs, musical
instruments, etc. he undergoes severe stress and strain.
Further, so long as
the object remains in contact with the senses, till then somewhat knowledge of
that object continues, later on only its remembrance in the mind remains. By
the lapse of time the remembrance also fades out. So, he makes effort to keep
those objects under his control and frequently-frequently indulges in them.
And the senses can enjoy only one object in one time, but he wants to enjoy
many objects and rushes towards the other object, and leaves it also, rushes
towards the other object - thus behaves ravenously.
In this way whatever
means come to his mind, he adopts them but all those means are false. Because,
firstly availability of the desired objects is not under one's control, it is
extremely difficult, and if by chance according to the rise of Karmas
the desired situation is also met with then by strengthening the senses the
power of enjoying the objects does not increase; that power increases only by
increasing the power of knowledge and perception but this depends on the
Kshayopashama of Karmas. Someone whose body is strong he is seen
possessing such power in a lesser measure; Someone whose body is lean and
thin, he is found possessing such power in greater measure. Therefore, by
strengthening the senses through the meals, etc. nothing is accomplished. By
decrease in passions & on getting Kshayopashama of Karmas if the
power of knowledge and perception increases then accordingly the power of
enjoying the objects increases.