Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)




Doha: So Nijbhav sada sukhad, apnai karo prakash

           Jo Bahuvidhi bhavdukhniko  karihai Sata nash


(Since) the nature of self soul is always blissful, thou ought to emit the light of self which will destroy the existence of the different the forms of miseries of mundane existence.


Many types of miseries are found in this Sansara (mundane existence); these are being narrated here, for if there be happiness in Sansara also, why should then we make effort for liberation from Sansara? Since there are several kinds of miseries in this Sansara so efforts are to be made for liberation.


As a physician, by making diagnosis of disease and describing its condition, convinces the patient about his disease and thereafter creates interest in him for its treatment; similarly, here also by making diagnosis of Sansara and describing its condition, (Acharya) convinces the mundane being of his Sansara - disease and creates interest in him for making efforts to get rid of it.


For example, the patient is suffering from the disease but does not know its root cause, does not know the right treatment and also cannot bear the pain. Then, whatever appears to be the right treatment he takes it; therefore, the misery does not come to an end, then tormented, being helpless, he bears those pains; when the physician tells him the root cause of pain, tells the nature of the pain, proves all his efforts wrong, then he gets interested in making the right effort. Similarly, the mundane being is suffering from Sansara (transmigratory existence) but does not know its root cause, does not know the right means and also cannot bear the miseries. Then, whatever appears the right effort he makes it; therefore, the misery does not come to an end, then tormented, being helpless, he bears those miseries. He is shown here the root cause of miseries; the nature of the misery is explained and all his efforts are proved to be wrong; then he gets interested in making the right efforts. For this purpose this description is being made here:


 Root Cause of Miseries


(A) From Karm's Bondage Point of View


The root cause of all miseries is wrong faith, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct. The misbelief in Tattvas (realities) due to rise of Darshan-Moha (faith-deluding Karma) is wrong faith (Mithya Darshan) because of it the true-realization of the nature of substances is not possible, rather false-realization is caused. And due to the instrumentality (Nimitta) of that wrong faith only whatever knowledge of Kshayopashama form exists, it is all perverse- knowledge; owing to that, right knowledge of the nature of substances does not evolve; rather contrary knowing is caused.  And the passionate dispositions caused due to the rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) is Asanyama (wrong conduct) because of which the Jiva does not act in accordance with the nature of the substances, rather acts contrarily.


Thus, these false belief etc. only are the root cause of all miseries; why is it so is being explained:


Misery caused by Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana and Release from it.


Because of wrong faith etc. Jiva can not attain discriminative knowledge of self and non-self. The self is a soul (living substance) and the body is the mass of infinite matter particles (Pudgala-Parvenus); by their union human, etc. embodied forms (Paryaya) are produced, Jiva believes that Paryaya (embodied form) to be self.  The nature of soul is knowledge, perception etc., through it a little knowing and seeing takes place and anger etc. dispositions are evolved owing to Karmic bondage; and touch, taste, smell, colour (complexion) is the nature of the body which is obvious and it undergoes various modifications like becoming obese, lean etc. and changing of touch (complexion) etc. - he knows all these as his own nature.


The functioning of knowledge and perception takes place through senses and mind; therefore, he believes that skin, tongue, nose, eyes, ears and mind are his organs. "I know and see through these organs"; because of this belief, the feeling of belonging's & affection is found in the senses.


Further, due to force of Moha (delusion) the desire of knowing and enjoying the objects through those senses is produced and on enjoying those objects he feels satisfied on fulfilling of that desire and feels delighted. Just as a dog masticates the bone, due to that its own blood starts coming out. By its taste it believes that this is the taste of the bones; similarly, this Jiva knows the objects due to which his knowledge gets entangled in them; taking its taste he believes that this is the taste of objects, but the taste is not in the objects. He himself created the desire, by knowing it himself, believed himself to be happy; but "I am an eternal soul characterized by knowledge (sentience)" such realization of "self being an embodiment of knowledge only" is not there. And "I saw dance, heard melody, smelt the flowers, tasted and touched the objects, knew the Shastra (scripture), I should know this" - like this he possesses the realization of knowledge mixed with the objects known; because of this the pre-dominance of objects alone is perceived. In this way, owing to Nimitta of Moha the desire of objects is found to this Jiva.


He has the desire of knowing and enjoying all the objects of past, present and future. "I should touch all, taste all, smell all, see all, hear all and know all" - so much is the desire, but power is limited to touch, taste, smell, seeing and hearing only such objects which come into contact with the senses; out of them only a few are partly known and enjoyed and a few are known partly through remembrance by mind, etc. Even this much materializes on meeting several external causes. Hence, the desire never gets fulfilled. Such desire can only be fulfilled on attainment of (Kevala Jnana) omniscience.


The desire does not get fulfilled through the senses because of the state of Kshayopashama. So, owing to Nimitta of Moha continuous desire of knowing and enjoying concerned objects through senses persists; due to which, getting perturbed, the Jiva is suffering from misery. So much is the misery that even for knowing and enjoying a single object he is not even afraid of death. As an elephant has vehement desire of embracing the artificial female elephant, the fish of tasting of meat attached with the fisherman's stick, the bee of enjoying the smell of lotus flower, the moths of seeing the color of lighted lamp and the deer of hearing the melody (of music) due to which even if instant death be sensed yet they are not afraid of it.  On one hand death was sure if the objects were enjoyed and on the other hand misery of senses was felt to be greater if the objects were not enjoyed. Being afflicted from the agony of these senses, all Jivas irrationally plunge into the objects of senses just as some miserable person jumps from the top of the mountain.  Jivas earn wealth by undergoing several types of pains, spend it for - obtaining the objects of senses and for the acquisition of those objects they knowingly go even to such places where death is sure to occur. They also indulge into the acts of injury, etc. and involve into passions of anger, etc.


 What can they do? The pang of the senses becomes unbearable; hence no other idea comes to their mind. The Indras (celestial beings) etc. are also afflicted from this pang. They too are found very much engrossed in the objects of the senses. Just as a person afflicted from eczema rubs the affected part engrossingly; if there be no pain why would he rub; similarly, the (celestial beings) etc. afflicted from the sensual disease, indulge engrossingly in the objects of senses. If there be no pain why would they indulge in sensual objects?  Such is the sensual knowledge produced by Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana-Darshanavarana Karmas. It acts as a cause of misery owing to Nimitta (association) of Mithya Darshan (wrong belief), etc. in association with desire.


 Now, the means that this Jiva adopts for getting rid of miseries, is being explained: With the understanding that "My desire will be fulfilled by enjoying the objects through senses", he firstly strengthens the senses by taking different types of meals, etc. and knows thus only that if the senses are strong he will have more power of enjoying the objects. Moreover, various external causes are required there; he tries to acquire them.


Further, the senses enjoy the objects on coming in contact with them. Hence, he tries to bring about the contact of the objects with the senses through different external resources. Thus, for the sake of gathering together different types of garments, foods, flowers, temple ornaments, etc. and songs, musical instruments, etc. he undergoes severe stress and strain.


Further, so long as the object remains in contact with the senses, till then somewhat knowledge of that object continues, later on only its remembrance in the mind remains. By the lapse of time the remembrance also fades out. So, he makes effort to keep those objects under his control and frequently-frequently indulges in them. And the senses can enjoy only one object in one time, but he wants to enjoy many objects and rushes towards the other object, and leaves it also, rushes towards the other object - thus behaves ravenously.


In this way whatever means come to his mind, he adopts them but all those means are false. Because, firstly availability of the desired objects is not under one's control, it is extremely difficult, and if by chance according to the rise of Karmas the desired situation is also met with then by strengthening the senses the power of enjoying the objects does not increase; that power increases only by increasing the power of knowledge and perception but this depends on the Kshayopashama of Karmas. Someone whose body is strong he is seen possessing such power in a lesser measure; Someone whose body is lean and thin, he is found possessing such power in greater measure. Therefore, by strengthening the senses through the meals, etc. nothing is accomplished. By decrease in passions & on getting Kshayopashama of Karmas if the power of knowledge and perception increases then accordingly the power of enjoying the objects increases.