What is the right means then? If one's belief becomes as per the nature of the
substances then all miseries come to an end. Just as someone deludingly
believes the corpse to be alive or tries to make it alive, then he himself
becomes miserable. And believing it to be dead and having the faith that
this will not become alive by trying to make it alive, is the only means to
get rid of that misery. Similarly, if someone holding wrong faith misbelieves
the substances, tries to change them otherwise, then he himself becomes
miserable. And believing them correctly and having the faith that these will
not change otherwise by trying to get them changed, is the only means to get
rid of that misery. The remedy of the misery caused by delusion is to
remove the delusion only. So on removal of delusion right belief originates
and that alone is to be known as the real remedy.
Misery due to
Charitra Moha and Release from it
Owing to rise of
Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) (impure) dispositions
of Jiva in the form of anger, etc. passions and laughter, etc.
quasi-passions are caused, then this Jiva sorrowfully feeling much
afflicted indulges in several types of evil-deeds anxiously. The same is being
explained: When a person is overpowered by anger passion then he desires to
harm others and for that purpose he thinks about various means, utters
heart-breaking words by using abusive language. He starts killing by his own
limbs (hands, etc.), and by arms, stones, etc. He tries to harm others even by
harming the self through undergoing lot of pains by spending money and by
committing suicide or if he knows that the one can be harmed through others,
then he tries to get him harmed through others or, if one gets harmed on his
own then he approbates it. Even if by other's harm none of his purpose gets
fulfilled yet he harms him, and on rise of anger if some venerable or
well-wishers, also intervene in the matter then he abuses them also, starts
beating (them) and becomes irrational. And if no harm be caused to other
person then he feels very sorry in his heart of his own and cuts his own limbs
and even dies by swallowing poison, etc.; such condition happens on rise of
And when a person is
over-powered by pride-passion then he desires to humiliate others and exalts
himself and for this purpose he plans many schemes. He censures others and
exalts himself and undermines other's image (prestige) through various ways
and means and magnifies his own image. The wealth which he has collected with
great pains, spends in marriages, etc. and spends even by taking loans
thinking that his name and fame will remain even after his death; he tries to
magnify his self-esteem even by committing suicide. If someone does not pay
respect then he tries to earn respect even by giving threats and creating
trouble for others. Moreover, under the pressure of pride, he does not pay
respect even to honorable and elderly persons and becomes irrational. If he
does not find others in the let-down position and himself in the higher
position then he inwardly feels very sorry and cuts his own limbs and even
dies by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of pride- passion.
And when a person is
overpowered by deceit passion then he desires to accomplish his objective
deceptively. For the purpose of accomplishing it he plans many schemes, utters
deceitful words in different ways, poses his body deceitfully, tries to show
external things otherwise, even indulges in such deceitful actions which may
end his life. On exposure of his deception he may get badly harmed, even death
may occur, yet he remains undaunted. Under the influence of deception even if
some venerable and adorable persons come in his contact, he acts deceitfully
with them also and becomes irrational. If his objective does not get
accomplished by deception then he feels extremely sorry and cuts his own limbs
and commits suicide by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of
And when a person is
overpowered by greed-passion, then the desire of obtaining the favorite
objects arises and for the purpose of accomplishing it he plans in various
ways. He utters words in support of his objective, poses his body in different
ways, tolerates lot of miseries, serves others, visits foreign countries, even
he indulges in that work which may lead to his death and starts such
activities which may cause great sufferings to him. And on the rise of greed-
passion, even if there be some work related to the venerable and adorable
persons, then also he tries to achieve his goal and becomes irrational. And
whatever desired thing he has obtained, he tries to protect it by various
means. If the desired object is not obtained or the favorite thing is lost
then he himself feels very much distressed, cuts his limbs and dies by taking
poison, etc.; such condition happens when one is overpowered by greed-passion.
Thus, the person
afflicted by passions indulges in these various activities.
And along with these
passions the quasi-passions (No- Kashayas) are also found; there, when
laughter-passion is evolved then one himself feels elated and joyful. This is
to be known as the laughing of a hysteric patient; (although) he is suffering
from several types of diseases even then he starts laughing by making some
conjecture. Similarly, this Jiva (mundane being) is suffering from
different maladies even then by making some conjecture he feels happy
considering it to be pleasing to one-self but in reality he is miserable. He
will become happy only after the eradication of the disease of passion.
'liking-passion' arises then one feels excessive doting in the favorite thing.
Just as a cat gets engrossed fondingly on catching a rat, does not leave it
even if someone beats it; likewise, here also one feels excessive fondness (in
one's favorite object) considering that it is obtained with a great difficulty
and may get separated; therefore, it is assuredly misery.
When the disliking passion arises, then on getting the association of
repugnant thing one feels highly dejected. The association of repugnant thing
is not liked by him and the resulting agony becomes unbearable; so, he feels
highly distressed for its desertion. This itself is misery.
When the sorrow
(grief) passion is evolved, then on dissociation of favorite thing and
association of unfavorable thing, getting highly upset, he feels very much
afflicted, weeps, cries, becomes unmindful and dies by cutting his limbs;
nothing is achieved by all this, even then he makes himself miserable.
When the fear-passion
arises, then knowing someone to be the cause of dissociation of favorite thing
and association of unfavorable thing he feels fearful, feels highly dismayed,
runs away, hides, becomes nervous, reaches the place of misery and dies; hence
all this is nothing but misery.
When the disgust
passion arises, then he hates the unfavorable thing. That thing got associated
on its own and he tries to escape disdainfully or wants to remove it away and
getting dejected he experiences great pain.
When the carnal desire
arises due to rise of three types of sex-passions, then the desire of
cohabiting with female sex due to rise of male sex passion, the desire of
cohabiting with male sex, due to rise of female sex-passion and the desire of
cohabiting with both male and female sex due to rise of neuter sex-passion
gets evolved. On account of that one feels very much distressed, sex-fever
develops, becomes shameless, spends money, does not bother about defame, does
not care for the consequential miseries and punishment, etc. One becomes mad
owing to the vehemence of carnal desire and dies. In the books on sex-passion
ten states of carnal desire are described. Becoming mad and losing life are
also included there in those ten states. In medical books under the types of
fevers sex-fever is also stated to be the cause of death. Even occurrence of
death due to sex-passion is seen apparently. The sex-blind person becomes
irrational. The father with one's own daughter, the man with female animal,
etc. starts copulating. Such is the pain of carnal desire which itself is
Thus are found the
conditions owing to the rise of passions and quasi-passions.
Here a thought comes
to the mind that if one does not indulge in these conditions then anger, etc.
passions produce pain and if one indulges in these conditions then miseries
continue till the end of life. There, the Jivas accept the miseries
till the end of life but are not prepared to bear the agony of anger, etc.
passions. From this discussion it is ascertained that the pain of passions is
more than even the agony of death.
And when the rise of
passion-causing Karma takes place then he cannot resist the temptation
of indulging in passion. If the external causes of passions are met with then
one indulges in passions entangling in them. If no causes are met with then he
himself creates the causes. For example, if the cause of involving in
business, etc. passions be not there, then he himself creates the causes, e.g.
gambling and playing various other games that are the causes of anger, etc.
and narrating and hearing to the wicked tales, etc. Moreover, if the carnal
desire, anger passion, etc. produce agony and the body does not possess the
power of acting according to those passions then he prepares and takes the
medicines and adopts various other means. And if no cause is met with then he
himself indulges in passions on his own by thinking in his Upayoga
(active consciousness) about the objects, which cause passions. In this way,
this Jiva being afflicted from passion dispositions becomes extremely
And "If the purpose
for which the passion disposition has occurred gets accomplished then my this
misery may end and I may become happy" - thinking so, he arranges various
means for getting that purpose accomplished and treats it to be the means of
ending that misery.
Now, here the misery
which is caused due to passion dispositions, is really true and one obviously
himself suffers from such misery, but the means which he adopts are false, Why
so? This is being explained below:
In anger to harm
other, in pride to exalt self by humiliating others, in deceit to accomplish
one's object through deceptive means, in greed to acquire the favorite thing,
in laughter the continuation of cause of laughing, in liking the continuance
of the association of favorite thing, in disliking the dissociation of
unfavorite thing, in grief the elimination of the cause of sorrow, in fear the
elimination of the cause of fear, in disgust vanishing the cause of disgust,
in male sex-passion uniting sexually with female sex, in female-sex-passion
uniting sexually with male sex, in neuter-sex-passion uniting sexually with
both (male and female) sex - such purposes are found.
If these are fulfilled
then by mitigation of passions misery may come to an end and one may become
happy, but the accomplishment of those purposes is not under the control of
efforts made by him; it depends on destiny. Because one is seen making various
efforts but the object is not fulfilled. Moreover, making of efforts is also
not under one's own control, it depends on destiny. Because, one thinks of
making various efforts but not a single effort is seen materializing.