Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

EXPOSITION OF MISERIES OF MUNDANE EXISTENCE AND BLISS OF LIBERATION

 

 

What is the right means then? If one's belief becomes as per the nature of the substances then all miseries come to an end.  Just as someone deludingly believes the corpse to be alive or tries to make it alive, then he himself becomes miserable.  And believing it to be dead and having the faith that this will not become alive by trying to make it alive, is the only means to get rid of that misery. Similarly, if someone holding wrong faith misbelieves the substances, tries to change them otherwise, then he himself becomes miserable. And believing them correctly and having the faith that these will not change otherwise by trying to get them changed, is the only means to get rid of that misery.  The remedy of the misery caused by delusion is to remove the delusion only. So on removal of delusion right belief originates and that alone is to be known as the real remedy.

 

Misery due to Charitra Moha and Release from it                           

 

Owing to rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding Karma) (impure) dispositions of Jiva in the form of anger, etc. passions and laughter, etc. quasi-passions are caused, then this Jiva sorrowfully feeling much afflicted indulges in several types of evil-deeds anxiously. The same is being explained: When a person is overpowered by anger passion then he desires to harm others and for that purpose he thinks about various means, utters heart-breaking words by using abusive language. He starts killing by his own limbs (hands, etc.), and by arms, stones, etc. He tries to harm others even by harming the self through undergoing lot of pains by spending money and by committing suicide or if he knows that the one can be harmed through others, then he tries to get him harmed through others or, if one gets harmed on his own then he approbates it. Even if by other's harm none of his purpose gets fulfilled yet he harms him, and on rise of anger if some venerable or well-wishers, also intervene in the matter then he abuses them also, starts beating (them) and becomes irrational. And if no harm be caused to other person then he feels very sorry in his heart of his own and cuts his own limbs and even dies by swallowing poison, etc.; such condition happens on rise of anger-passion.

 

And when a person is over-powered by pride-passion then he desires to humiliate others and exalts himself and for this purpose he plans many schemes. He censures others and exalts himself and undermines other's image (prestige) through various ways and means and magnifies his own image. The wealth which he has collected with great pains, spends in marriages, etc. and spends even by taking loans thinking that his name and fame will remain even after his death; he tries to magnify his self-esteem even by committing suicide. If someone does not pay respect then he tries to earn respect even by giving threats and creating trouble for others. Moreover, under the pressure of pride, he does not pay respect even to honorable and elderly persons and becomes irrational. If he does not find others in the let-down position and himself in the higher position then he inwardly feels very sorry and cuts his own limbs and even dies by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of pride- passion.

 

 And when a person is overpowered by deceit passion then he desires to accomplish his objective deceptively. For the purpose of accomplishing it he plans many schemes, utters deceitful words in different ways, poses his body deceitfully, tries to show external things otherwise, even indulges in such deceitful actions which may end his life. On exposure of his deception he may get badly harmed, even death may occur, yet he remains undaunted. Under the influence of deception even if some venerable and adorable persons come in his contact, he acts deceitfully with them also and becomes irrational. If his objective does not get accomplished by deception then he feels extremely sorry and cuts his own limbs and commits suicide by taking poison, etc. Such condition happens on rise of deceit passion.

 

And when a person is overpowered by greed-passion, then the desire of obtaining the favorite objects arises and for the purpose of accomplishing it he plans in various ways. He utters words in support of his objective, poses his body in different ways, tolerates lot of miseries, serves others, visits foreign countries, even he indulges in that work which may lead to his death and starts such activities which may cause great sufferings to him. And on the rise of greed- passion, even if there be some work related to the venerable and adorable persons, then also he tries to achieve his goal and becomes irrational. And whatever desired thing he has obtained, he tries to protect it by various means. If the desired object is not obtained or the favorite thing is lost then he himself feels very much distressed, cuts his limbs and dies by taking poison, etc.; such condition happens when one is overpowered by greed-passion.

 

Thus, the person afflicted by passions indulges in these various activities.

 

And along with these passions the quasi-passions (No- Kashayas) are also found; there, when laughter-passion is evolved then one himself feels elated and joyful. This is to be known as the laughing of a hysteric patient; (although) he is suffering from several types of diseases even then he starts laughing by making some conjecture.  Similarly, this Jiva (mundane being) is suffering from different maladies even then by making some conjecture he feels happy considering it to be pleasing to one-self but in reality he is miserable.  He will become happy only after the eradication of the disease of passion.

 

When the 'liking-passion' arises then one feels excessive doting in the favorite thing. Just as a cat gets engrossed fondingly on catching a rat, does not leave it even if someone beats it; likewise, here also one feels excessive fondness (in one's favorite object) considering that it is obtained with a great difficulty and may get separated; therefore, it is assuredly misery.

 

When the disliking passion arises, then on getting the association of repugnant thing one feels highly dejected. The association of repugnant thing is not liked by him and the resulting agony becomes unbearable; so, he feels highly distressed for its desertion. This itself is misery.

 

When the sorrow (grief) passion is evolved, then on dissociation of favorite thing and association of unfavorable thing, getting highly upset, he feels very much afflicted, weeps, cries, becomes unmindful and dies by cutting his limbs; nothing is achieved by all this, even then he makes himself miserable.

 

When the fear-passion arises, then knowing someone to be the cause of dissociation of favorite thing and association of unfavorable thing he feels fearful, feels highly dismayed, runs away, hides, becomes nervous, reaches the place of misery and dies; hence all this is nothing but misery.

 

When the disgust passion arises, then he hates the unfavorable thing. That thing got associated on its own and he tries to escape disdainfully or wants to remove it away and getting dejected he experiences great pain.

 

When the carnal desire arises due to rise of three types of sex-passions, then the desire of cohabiting with female sex due to rise of male sex passion, the desire of cohabiting with male sex, due to rise of female sex-passion and the desire of cohabiting with both male and female sex due to rise of neuter sex-passion gets evolved. On account of that one feels very much distressed, sex-fever develops, becomes shameless, spends money, does not bother about defame, does not care for the consequential miseries and punishment, etc. One becomes mad owing to the vehemence of carnal desire and dies.  In the books on sex-passion ten states of carnal desire are described.  Becoming mad and losing life are also included there in those ten states. In medical books under the types of fevers sex-fever is also stated to be the cause of death. Even occurrence of death due to sex-passion is seen apparently. The sex-blind person becomes irrational.  The father with one's own daughter, the man with female animal, etc. starts copulating. Such is the pain of carnal desire which itself is great misery.

 

Thus are found the conditions owing to the rise of passions and quasi-passions.

 

Here a thought comes to the mind that if one does not indulge in these conditions then anger, etc. passions produce pain and if one indulges in these conditions then miseries continue till the end of life. There, the Jivas accept the miseries till the end of life but are not prepared to bear the agony of anger, etc. passions. From this discussion it is ascertained that the pain of passions is more than even the agony of death.

 

And when the rise of passion-causing Karma takes place then he cannot resist the temptation of indulging in passion. If the external causes of passions are met with then one indulges in passions entangling in them. If no causes are met with then he himself creates the causes.  For example, if the cause of involving in business, etc. passions be not there, then he himself creates the causes, e.g. gambling and playing various other games that are the causes of anger, etc. and narrating and hearing to the wicked tales, etc. Moreover, if the carnal desire, anger passion, etc. produce agony and the body does not possess the power of acting according to those passions then he prepares and takes the medicines and adopts various other means. And if no cause is met with then he himself indulges in passions on his own by thinking in his Upayoga (active consciousness) about the objects, which cause passions. In this way, this Jiva being afflicted from passion dispositions becomes extremely miserable.

 

And "If the purpose for which the passion disposition has occurred gets accomplished then my this misery may end and I may become happy" - thinking so, he arranges various means for getting that purpose accomplished and treats it to be the means of ending that misery.

 

Now, here the misery which is caused due to passion dispositions, is really true and one obviously himself suffers from such misery, but the means which he adopts are false, Why so? This is being explained below:

 

In anger to harm other, in pride to exalt self by humiliating others, in deceit to accomplish one's object through deceptive means, in greed to acquire the favorite thing, in laughter the continuation of cause of laughing, in liking the continuance of the association of favorite thing, in disliking the dissociation of unfavorite thing, in grief the elimination of the cause of sorrow, in fear the elimination of the cause of fear, in disgust vanishing the cause of disgust, in male sex-passion uniting sexually with female sex, in female-sex-passion uniting sexually with male sex, in neuter-sex-passion uniting sexually with both (male and female) sex - such purposes are found.

 

If these are fulfilled then by mitigation of passions misery may come to an end and one may become happy, but the accomplishment of those purposes is not under the control of efforts made by him; it depends on destiny. Because one is seen making various efforts but the object is not fulfilled. Moreover, making of efforts is also not under one's own control, it depends on destiny. Because, one thinks of making various efforts but not a single effort is seen materializing.