Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct



Couplet:  Is bhav kai sab dukhnikai, karanr Mithyabhav

                Tin kee sata nash kari, pragtai moksh upaav


The main causes of all miseries of this mundane existence are fallacious (alien) dispositions of belief-knowledge and conduct. By uprooting their existence, the right means of attaining liberation gets manifested.


The fundamental causes of all worldly miseries are perverse belief, perverse knowledge and perverse conduct. Their characteristics are being elaborately described here. As a physician tells in detail the causes of the disease and the patient does not take unsuitable diet then he gets free from the disease. Similarly, a detailed exposition of the cause of transmigration (mundane existence) is given here; by knowing which if the mundane beings do not indulge in perverse belief, etc., then they would get free from mundane existence. Hence, a detailed exposition of the perverse belief, etc. is being given here:


The Characteristics of Perverse Belief


This Jiva is having bondage of karmic matter from times immemorial. The misbelief in Tattvas (reality) caused in him owing to the rise of Darshan Moha (faith-deluding) karma is termed as MithyaDarshan (wrong belief). For, the Quality of thatness is the reality (Tattva) i.e. the intrinsic characteristics of the substance which is worth ascertaining is termed as Tattva (the reality). That which is not a Tattva is Atattva (non-reality). Therefore, that which is Atattva (non-reality) is false, so the name of this (falsity) is perversity (Mithya). And "this is thus only"- having such ascertainment, is called Shraddha (belief).


Here Shraddha (belief) is to be taken as Darshan (Faith). Al- though the literal meaning of the word Darshan is general (undifferentiated) perception, yet with reference to the context here the meaning of this verb should be known as "to believe." Similar interpretation is given in Tattvarthsutra's commentary Sarvartha Siddhi. Because general perception is neither the cause of transmigratory existence nor of liberation; rather the belief alone is the cause of transmigration or liberation; hence, in the context of the cause of transmigration-liberation, the meaning of Darshan should be known as belief only.


Thus, the wrong form of perception, i.e., belief is to be understood as Mithya Darshan (wrong belief). Believing contrary to the nature of the substance and not believing as it really is such fallacious determination, i.e. misconception is Mithya Darshan (perverse belief).


Question: Without omniscience (perfect knowledge) all the substances are not comprehended rightly and without having right comprehension the right belief does not evolve; how could then the wrong belief be abandoned?


Answer: Knowing, not knowing or wrong knowing of the substances depends on the Kshayopashama or Udaya of Jnana Varana karma and the ascertainment (belief) evolves only on knowing; how could ascertainment take place without knowing - this is true. But as some person know incorrectly or correctly those objects with which he has got nothing to do and believes them exactly as he knows them, even due to that there is no harm or benefit to him; because of this he does not get the name of an insane or an ingenious person. And if he knows incorrectly the objects with which he is concerned and believes them accordingly then he gets harmed; so, he is called an insane person and if he knows those objects correctly and believes accordingly then he is benefited; so, he is called a wise person.  Similarly, if the Jiva knows incorrectly or correctly those things with which he is not concemed and believes them accordingly then there is no harm or gain to him; because of this he does not get the title of misbeliever or true believer, but if he knows incorrectly the substances or elements with which he is concerned and believes them accordingly then he is harmed; therefore, he is called misbeliever and if he knows them correctly and believes them accordingly then he is benefitted: therefore, he is called true believer.


Here it should be known that in not knowing or knowing correctly-incorrectly the non-concerned or concerned substances, there happens the decrease or increase of one's knowledge; so, this much is the loss or gain of the Jiva and its instrumental cause is the Jnanavarana karma. But due to holding false or right belief about the concerned

(essential) substances, there happens some more harm or benefit to this Jiva; so, its instrumental cause is Darshan Moha karma.


Question: Since belief is according to the knowledge, hence, belief appears to be related with Jnana Varana karma; how could the specific instrumentality of Darshan Moha karma be established here?


Answer: All five-sensed rational beings possess the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) of Jnanavarana karma (i.e., manifestation of knowledge) necessary for effectuating belief of the Jiva etc., essential principles (Purposeful Tattvas).  But the Dravyalingi Muni (a possessionless ascetic following complete conduct without right belief) studies even up to eleven Angas (out of the total 12 Angas of the whole scripture) and the Devas (Gods) of Graiveyaka heavens possess clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhijnan) etc.; in spite of possessing such a high degree of Kshayopashama of Jnana varana karma they do not possess the right belief of Jiva etc., essential principles whereas the Tiryanchas (rational five-sensed animals) in spite of their having lesser degree of Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana karma may be found possessed with right belief of Jiva etc., essential principles. It is, therefore, understood that the belief does not evolve according to. (the Kshayopashama of) Jnanavarana only; some other (instrumental) karma is there and that is Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma). Owing to its rise, the Jiva is found with false belief; then he perversely believes the Jiva etc.  essential Tattvas.


Purposeful and Purposeless Substances (Principles)


Question: Which are the purposeful and purposeless substances?


Answer: This Jiva has only one purpose and it is that he should not be miserable but be happy. No Jiva has any other purpose. And non-occurrence of sorrow and occurrence of happiness is one and the same thing, because the absence of misery is nothing but happiness and the accomplishment of this purpose takes place by acquiring right belief of Jiva etc. Tattvas (realities).


Question: How does it happen?


Answer: First of all for eradicating miseries, one must possess the discriminating knowledge of the self and the non- self. If one does not have the discriminative knowledge of the self and non-self then how can he eradicate his misery without identifying the self? Or knowing the self & non-self as to be one thing, if for rooting out the sorrow of the self, one does the treatment of the other non-self thing, how can then the sorrow of the self be rooted out? Or the non- self things are distinctly different from the self, but if one holds the feeling of I-ness and mineness in those non- self things, then misery alone results. The misery gets eradicated only on attaining the discriminative knowledge of the self and non-self. And the knowledge of the self and non- self is attained only after having got the discriminative knowledge of Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (non-soul) substances, because the one himself is Jiva (soul) and the body, etc. are Ajiva (non-soul).


If through distinctive characteristics (differences) etc., the Jiva-Ajiva are identified, then the separateness of self and non-self may be comprehended; hence one ought to know Jiva-Ajiva. Or, on acquiring the knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva, the substances by contrary belief of which one used to suffer from misery, now by attaining the right knowledge of the same, misery gets eradicated; hence, acquiring knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva is a must.


Further, the cause of sorrow is bondage of karmic matter and its causes are false belief, etc. influx (instincts). If one does not identify these, does not know these as to be the root cause of sorrow, how can then he uproot them? And if one does not eradicate these instincts, how would not then the karmic bondage take place? Therefore, misery alone is caused. Or the false belief, etc. instincts (dispositions) are misery -incarnate. If those are not identified correctly as they really are, then one cannot eradicate them and consequently, one would remain miserable only; hence, one must know Asrava (influx).


Further, the cause of all miseries is karmic bondage. If one does not know this then one would not make effort to get rid of it; then due to its instrumentality one would remain miserable. Therefore, one must know Bandha (Bondage).


And uprooting of Asrava (influx) is Samvara (stoppage); if one does not know its (Samvara 's) differentia then one would not indulge in it; then influx (Asrava) only would continue, due to which misery alone would be caused both in present and in future. Therefore, one must know Samvara (stoppage).


Further, somewhat partial eradication of karmic bondage is termed as Nirjara (partial sheddingoff). If one does not know it, then he would not make effort to follow it; consequently, the karmic bondage would persist wholly, due to which misery alone would continue. Hence, one must know Nirjara (partial shedding off of impurity).


And the absolute up rooting of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed as Moksha (perfect liberation). If one does not identify it, he would not make effort for evolving it, then he will continue suffering from the agonies in the world produced by karmic bondage. Hence, one must know Moksha (liberation).  Thus, one should know Jiva, Ajiva etc. seven Tattvas (realities).


Further, if someone may know the seven Tattvas from scripture but until "those are exactly so only" - such sort of a crystal clear conception is not evolved, what is then the advantage of such knowledge? Therefore, right belief of Tattvas is fruitful. Thus, only on acquiring the true belief of Jiva etc. Tattvas, the purpose of eradicating miseries is accomplished. Hence, one should know that the Jiva etc. substances only are the purposeful substances (Tattvas).


Further, specific details of these (Tattvas) are Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice) etc; their true belief also is fruitful because detailed exposition is more effective than general exposition. Thus, these substances are purposeful; hence, on acquiring their right belief, misery ends and real happiness evolves and without their right belief misery continues and happiness does not evolve.


And besides above stated Padarthas (substances) there are other innumerable substances; all those are purposeless because possessing or not possessing their right belief is in no way the cause of happiness or misery.