Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct



Question: Basically, you have described Jiva and Ajiva the two substances, in which rest all substances are covered; besides them, what other substances are left out which are described as purposeless?


Answer: All substances are, of course, covered in Jiva-Ajiva but there are many specialties of those Jiva-Ajiva substances. Out of those specialities of Jiva-Ajiva, the right belief of such specialities which leads to the right belief of self and non-self, gives rise to the belief of forsaking Raag (attachment) etc. and will produce happiness; and by having wrong belief, of which the right belief of self and non-self is not evolved, the belief of forsaking attachment, etc. is not generated and will result in misery. Knowledge of Jiva & Ajiva substances with such specialties is to be known as purposeful.  Moreover, the Jiva-Ajiva substances with their those specialties are to be known purposeless by having or not having the right belief of which the belief of self and non-self may or may not get generated and the belief of uprooting attachment, etc. may or may not get evolved; there is no surety.


For instance, having belief of Jiva and body (person) with Caitanya (consciousness) and Murtatva (corporeality) etc. respectively is purposeful and having belief of human, etc. embodied and jar, cloth, etc. forms of matter (specific forms of Jiva & matter) is purposeless. Similarly, other examples are to be known.


Thus, wrong belief of the aforesaid purposeful Jiva etc. Tattvas should be known as Mithya Darshan (perverse faith).


The Tendency of Wrong Belief


Now the tendency of wrong belief found in mundane beings is described here. Though belief is to be described, yet the description is being given with emphasis on cognizance, because belief follows knowledge.


Wrong Belief about the Self (Jiva) and Non-self (Ajiva) Tattvas


The self Jiva is from the beginningless time; he assumes different modifications owing to the instrumentality of karmic matter.  There, he relinquishes the former modification and assumes new modification. And that modification is a conglomerated form of bondage of the one- self (soul) and corporal body of infinite matter-particles (atoms). And "I am this" such sort of I-ness feeling in that modification is found to this Jiva. And he himself is Jiva (soul), his intrinsic nature is knowledge, perception, etc. and the alien dispositions are anger, etc. and the color, smell, taste, touch, etc. are the nature of matter-particles (atoms) - all these characteristics, he believe to be as his own nature.


`These are mine' - this type of mineness feeling is found in them (non-self things). And he himself is a Jiva, the increasing-decreasing states of knowledge, etc. and anger- passion, etc. are his modifications and the changing of color, etc. is the modification of matter-particles (atoms) - all these forms he believes to be as his own modifications. `This is my state' such sort of mineness feeling is held by him.


Further, there exists cause and effect relationship between the Jiva (soul) and body, hence, whatever movement or action takes place, he believes it to be as his own. Perception, knowledge (sentience) is one's nature and the touch, etc. material senses which are parts (limbs) of the body are merely instrumental to his activity.  This (misbeliever) treating these as one with himself, believes that "I touched by hand, etc., tasted by tongue, smelled by nose, saw by eyes, heard by ears". Further, situated in the heart is the material-mind made up of (specific material-particles called) Manovargana in the form of eight-petal lotus. It is not visible to eyes, and is a part of body; thus on its being instrumental, the knowledge functions in the form of remembrance, etc. Treating the material mind and the knowledge as one, he believes that "I knew by material mind".
Further, when the desire of speaking arises then he vibrates his Pradeshas (spatial units) in- a way that speaking materializes.  Thereby, owing to (the instrumentality of) common-space occupancy-relationship, the organs of the body also vibrate.  Owing to their instrumentality, the Bhasha- Varganakind of Pudgala (matter-particles) turn into the vocal-words-form.  Treating all these as one, he believes "I speak".


Further, the desire of making movement, etc. action or acquiring (enjoying) a thing, etc., arises in the self, then he vibrates his Pradeshas in a way that the desired action takes place. There, owing to the common-space-occupancy- relationship; the organs of the body vibrate then that action takes place; or without one's desire the body vibrates; then one's (soul's) Pradeshas also vibrate. Treating all these as one, he believes "I make movement, etc. I acquire (enjoy) the objects or I have acquired (enjoyed) it, etc." Thus he believes in several ways.


Further, when the passion dispositions arise in this Jiva then the bodily movements also become according to those passions; for example, eyes become red on the rise of anger- passion, etc., the face becomes cheerful on the rise of laughter-passion, the penis becomes stiff (erect) on the rise of male sex-passion; this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes, "I do all these acts". And the states of cold, warm, hunger, thirst, disease, etc. are generated in the body; through their instrumentality, being overpowered by delusion, he himself believes happiness and sorrow; knowing all these as one, he believes the cold, etc. (states of body) and happiness-sorrow as if all this has happened in him.


Further, because of union and disunion of the atoms of the body or because of changes in their states or because of cuts in the bodily parts, etc., one (embodied self) becomes (physically) obese-gaunt (lean and thin) etc., young-old, etc. or crippled, and accordingly, one's soul's Pradeshas get contracted or expanded; this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes: I am obese, I am lean and thin (gaunt), I am child, I am old (aged), my these limbs have been cut" believes in such many ways.


Further, the Gati (state of existence), Kul (race) etc. are found from the viewpoints of the body. Treating them as one's own, he believes, "I am human, I am animal or plant (Tiryanch), I am Kshatriya (warrior), I am Vaishya (trader) etc." And from the union and disunion of the body point of view, birth and death take place; treating it as his own birth-death, he believes: "I took birth, I will die".


Due to the relationship with the body only, he believes having kinship with other things. He treats them to be his parents who have been instrumental in giving birth to his body, to her who dallys his body amorously accepts as his wife, to him who got birth by his body accepts as his son, to him who is beneficent (helpful) to his body accepts as his friend, to him who harms his body accepts as his foe; such sorts of belief are found in him.


What more to say? He believes himself and the body as one in all respects. Here the names of the senses, etc. have been described but he is totally unaware of all this. Senselessly, he holds I-ness feeling in the embodied form (Paryaya); What is its reason? The same is being explained now:


This Jiva is having sensory knowledge from the beginningless time, due to that reason, "the self who is of non-corporeal (immaterial) form" this is not cognized by him, but 'the body which is of material form' - that only is cognized by him. And it is the nature of the self to definitely possess I-ness feeling by knowing something as to be the self. Hence, so long as the self (soul) is not cognized as to be a separate entity till then he possesses I-ness feeling in their combined form of modification (embodied form) only.


There exists an uttermost cause and effect relationship between the self (soul) and the body, that is why the separateness (discrimination) is not cognized and the thought by which the separateness is cognized cannot evolve owing to intense influence of wrong belief.  Therefore, I-ness feeling is found in the embodied form (Paryaya) only.


Further, sometimes on association of external things (wealth, etc.), this Jiva treats all these things as his own due to wrong belief.  Although son, wife, wealth, grain, elephant, horse, house (palace), servant, etc. appear to the self as distinctly different from the self and always not dependent on the self, even then he (this misbeliever) feels mineness in them.


Sometimes such sort of hallucination about the son, etc. arises that "their existence is my existence". And due to wrong belief, the characteristics of the body, etc. are perceived only contrary to their nature. He believes transitory as permanent, separate as not separate, cause of sorrow as cause of happiness, sorrow as happiness; such contrary feeling generates.


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva Tattvas wrong belief persists.


 Wrong Belief about Asrava-Tattva


Further, owing to the rise of Mohaniya karma (deluding karma) mithyatv (wrong belief) and kasayas (attachment & aversion passions) etc. dispositions are caused in this Jiva; he (the misbeliever) believes them to be as his nature, does not know them as caused by the rise of karmas. He believes perception and knowledge (Upayoga) and these influx dispositions (Asrava Bhavas) to be as one thing, because their substratum is the same one soul and the change of their modification happens on the same moment of time, therefore, the distinct nature of these is not comprehended by him and the thought (knowledge) which is the cause of realizing distinct nature cannot evolve owing to the force (severity) of wrong belief.


"These wrong belief and passions are found with restlessness, hence are distressing in the present and are the cause of karmic bondage; therefore, will produce misery in future" -he (the misbeliever) does not believe them so and knowing advantageous, indulges himself by engrossing in these dispositions. Further, he becomes miserable because of his own wrong belief and passions and in vain considers others to be the cause of misery. For example, (the Jiva) becomes miserable due to wrong belief but considers that substance irksome which does not modify according to his belief. And one becomes sorrowful due to anger-passion but he considers that thing distressing with which he got angry. One becomes miserable due to greed-passion but he considers misery being caused by not getting the desired thing. Similarly, one should understand in other respects also.

Further, whatever fruition of these influx dispositions takes place, same is not cognized by him. Due to severity of these (passions) one gets birth in the hell, etc. and due to mildness of these, one gets birth in the heaven, etc.; there he experiences more-less restlessness misery but one does not cognizes it to be so and as such those dispositions (influx) do not appear to be bad. The reason is this that those dispositions appear to be produced by him, therefore, how to believe them to be bad?


Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Asrava-Tattva wrong belief is caused.