Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct

 

 

Wrong Belief about Bandha-Tattva (Bondage)

 

Further, karmic bondage of knowledge-obscuring, etc. type of karmas is caused by these influx dispositions (Asrava Bhavas); on rise of those karmas, decrease in knowledge and perception, evolution of perverse belief and passions, non- fulfillment of desired object, meeting with causes of happiness and unhappiness, continued association with the body, getting birth with particular Gati (state of existence), Jati (class of Jivas) body, etc. and obtaining of high-low status take place.

 

In the causation of these, the prime cause is the karmic matter, which he (the misbeliever) does not identify, because it is extremely subtle in form, it is not visible to him and that karma does not appear to him to be doer (instrumental cause) of these deeds; therefore, in their occurrence, either he believes himself as the doer or someone else as the doer. And when he fails in determining the doer (creator) to be either himself or someone else, then thoughtlessly believes destiny to be the creator.

 

Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Bandha-Tattva (principle of bondage) wrong belief is caused.

 

Wrong Belief about Samvara Tattva

 

Absence of influx (Asrava) is stoppage (Samvara). How can one effectuate the right belief of Samvara (stoppage of inflow of karmic matter) who does not correctly recognize influx (Asrava)?  For instance, someone follows unwholesome conduct; (if) it does not appear unwholesome to him how would then he believe its absence to be wholesome? Similarly, Jiva (mundane being) is engrossed in influx Asrava; (if) it does not appear harmful to him, how then would he believe Samvara to be beneficial which evolves in the absence of influx (Asrava)?

 

Since eternity, only Asrava Bhavas are found evolving to this Jiva Samvara (stoppage of influx) has never been evolved; therefore, evolution of Samvara is not comprehended by him. On evolution of Samvara the spiritual bliss is produced; this is not believed by him. By Samvara there will be no sorrow in future, is not believed by him. Therefore, he makes no effort for stoppage of influx (Samvara of Asrava) and believing other objects to be distress-causing, makes efforts for their dissociation but those are not under his control; he unnecessarily feels melancholic.

 

Thus, due to wrong knowledge of Samvara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.

 

Wrong Belief about Nirjara Tattva

 

Further, partial destruction of bondage (of karmas) is Nirjara (shedding off). How can he who does not recognize Bandha correctly, evolve the right belief of Nirjara? For example, if someone does not know that misery will be caused by the poison etc. eaten by him, why would then he know beneficial the remedy of destroying it?  Similarly, if one does not know that the misery will be caused by the karmas bonded in the past, how would then he know beneficial the remedy of their destruction (Nirjara)?

 

Further, this Jiva cannot acquire the knowledge of subtle karmic particles through senses and also does not know their power of causing misery. Therefore, knowing other objects as instrumental in producing misery, he tries to destroy them only, but those objects are not under his control. Moreover, if by chance, for the sake of removing sorrow, some agreeable association takes place, then that too takes place as per one's karmas. Therefore, he unnecessarily becomes miserable by making effort about them.

 

Thus, due to wrong knowledge of Nirjara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.

 

Wrong Belief about Moksha Tattva

 

And (the state of) complete destruction of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed Moksha (perfect liberation). How can one, who does not recognize karmic bondage and all sorts of miseries caused by bondage, have right belief of Moksha? For example, someone is having a disease; if he does not know that disease and the anguish caused by that disease, how would then he believe beneficial the complete eradication of disease? Similarly, this Jiva is having karmic bondage; if he does not know that bondage and the misery caused by that bondage, how would then he know beneficial the complete eradication of karmic bondage?

 

And this Jiva does not have the knowledge of karmic matter and their potentiality; therefore, knowing the external objects as to be the cause of misery, he tries to destroy them totally. And he knows that he will become perfectly happy by accumulating the desired materials which he believes to be the cause of complete destruction of miseries, but this can never happen.  He unnecessarily becomes miserable.

 

Thus, due to perverse faith and owing to wrong knowledge of Moksha Tattva the wrong belief is caused. In this way, this Jiva entertains wrong belief about Jiva etc. seven purposeful Tattvas (elements) due to perverse faith.

 

Wrong Belief about Punya-Papa (Virtue & Vice)

 

Further, Punya-Papa Tattvas (virtue & vice) are the details of aforesaid Tattvas and the class of both Punya and Papa is one and the same; nevertheless, he understands Punya beneficial and Papa harmful due to wrong belief. Owing to rise of Punya if according to one's desire some work is accomplished then he feels it beneficial and owing to rise of Papa if the desired work does not materialize then he feels it bad; but both are the cause of agitation; hence, both are bad only.

 

And this Jiva, due to his own conviction, feels happiness- unhappiness in such conditions. Spiritually speaking, wherever there is agitation there is sorrow only. Therefore, treating the rise of Punya and Papa as beneficial and harmful is nothing but delusion.

 

And many Jivas, at times, consider the auspicious- inauspicious thoughts which are the cause of bondage of Punya and Papa as good or bad; that also is delusion, because both (types of thoughts) are the cause of karmic bondage.

 

Thus, owing to wrong knowledge of Punya-Papa wrong belief takes place. In this way, the nature of perverse faith in the form of misbelief of Tattvas has been described.  This is false; hence, its name is mithyatv (perverseness) and this is devoid of true belief; hence, the same is termed as Adarshan (no-belief).

 

The Nature of Wrong Knowledge

 

Now the nature of wrong knowledge is described. Knowing incorrectly the Jiva etc. purposeful Tattvas is termed Mithya-Jnan (false knowledge). Due to this, doubt, perverseness and indecisiveness are caused in knowing the Tattvas. There, "is it this or that?" - such sort of mutually contradictory dual form of knowledge is termed doubt (Sanshaya); e.g.- "Am I a soul or a material body?" such knowledge - And "It is like this only"- such sort of one form of knowledge contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the substance is termed perverseness (Viparyaya); e.g.- "I am a material body" - such knowledge. And "Something is there" such sort of indeterminate form of thought (knowledge) is termed indecisiveness (Anadhyavasaya), e.g. "I am something"- such knowledge. Thus, doubt, perverseness, indecisiveness form of knowledge about the purposeful essential Jiva etc. Tattvas is termed wrong knowledge (Mithya-Jnan).

 

Further, the name of false knowledge or right knowledge is not attributed from the viewpoint of knowing correctly or incorrectly the purposeless substances (Tattvas). For instance, if a misbeliever knows a rope as a rope, it is not termed as right knowledge and if a true believer knows a rope as a snake, it is not termed as false knowledge.

 

Question: Why should not one call right knowledge or wrong knowledge to the clearly perceptible right-wrong knowledge?

 

Answer: Where the purpose is only of knowing or ascertaining right-wrong, then whatever substance is there, the name right knowledge, wrong knowledge is given according to the viewpoint of knowing it right or wrong. For example, in describing direct-indirect form of comprehensive knowledge (Pramana) some substance is taken in view; there knowing it correctly is taken as right knowledge and knowing it doubtfully etc. is stated as the invalid form of wrong knowledge. But here the object is to determine the right and wrong knowledge, which are the cause of transmigration or liberation. In this connection the right or wrong knowledge of rope, serpent etc.; is not the cause of transmigration or liberation; that is why the right knowledge or wrong knowledge are not described here from their point of view. Here the right knowledge - wrong knowledge are described from the viewpoint of knowing of the purposeful Jiva, etc. Tattvas.

 

From this purport point of view only, in the scripture, all knowledge of a misbeliever is termed as false knowledge only and all knowledge of a true believer is termed as right knowledge.

 

Question: The misbeliever's knowledge about the Jiva etc. Tattvas is wrong; you may call it wrong knowledge, but at least call his correct knowledge about rope, serpent, etc. as to be the right knowledge?

 

Answer: Whatever a misbeliever knows, he does not perceive there the difference of substantial existence and non- existence, that is why it produces cause-perversity, nature- perversity and discriminative-perversity. There, whatsoever he knows, he does not identify its root cause and believes the contrary cause as to be the real cause; this is cause- perversity. And whatever he knows, there he does not identify its basic substantial nature; rather believes the contrary nature as to be the real nature. This is nature-perversity. And whatever he knows, there he does not identify that this is different from these and indivisible from these; rather believes divisibility and indivisibility contrarily; so, this is discriminative perversity.  Thus, perversity (contrariness) is found in the knowledge of a misbeliever.

 

Just as an insane person understands mother as wife and wife as mother; in the same way the misbeliever knows (the Tattvas) contrarily. And just as that insane person also in some particular moment knows mother as mother and wife as wife, even then, his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief. Therefore, his knowledge is not said to be right knowledge. Similarly, a misbeliever if in some particular moment knows some thing correctly also, even then his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief or if he knows correctly also from it he fulfills his purpose contrarily only. Therefore, his knowledge is not termed the right knowledge. Thus, misbelieve knowledge is called wrong knowledge.