Wrong Belief about
bondage of knowledge-obscuring, etc. type of karmas is caused by these
influx dispositions (Asrava Bhavas); on rise of those karmas,
decrease in knowledge and perception, evolution of perverse belief and
passions, non- fulfillment of desired object, meeting with causes of happiness
and unhappiness, continued association with the body, getting birth with
particular Gati (state of existence), Jati (class of Jivas)
body, etc. and obtaining of high-low status take place.
In the causation of
these, the prime cause is the karmic matter, which he (the misbeliever)
does not identify, because it is extremely subtle in form, it is not visible
to him and that karma does not appear to him to be doer (instrumental
cause) of these deeds; therefore, in their occurrence, either he believes
himself as the doer or someone else as the doer. And when he fails in
determining the doer (creator) to be either himself or someone else, then
thoughtlessly believes destiny to be the creator.
Thus, owing to wrong
knowledge of Bandha-Tattva (principle of bondage) wrong belief
Wrong Belief about
Absence of influx (Asrava)
is stoppage (Samvara). How can one effectuate the right belief of
Samvara (stoppage of inflow of karmic matter) who does not
correctly recognize influx (Asrava)? For instance, someone follows
unwholesome conduct; (if) it does not appear unwholesome to him how would then
he believe its absence to be wholesome? Similarly, Jiva (mundane being)
is engrossed in influx Asrava; (if) it does not appear harmful to him,
how then would he believe Samvara to be beneficial which evolves in the
absence of influx (Asrava)?
Since eternity, only
Asrava Bhavas are found evolving to this Jiva.
Samvara (stoppage of influx) has never been evolved; therefore, evolution
of Samvara is not comprehended by him. On evolution of Samvara
the spiritual bliss is produced; this is not believed by him. By Samvara
there will be no sorrow in future, is not believed by him. Therefore, he makes
no effort for stoppage of influx (Samvara of Asrava) and
believing other objects to be distress-causing, makes efforts for their
dissociation but those are not under his control; he unnecessarily feels
Thus, due to wrong
knowledge of Samvara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.
Wrong Belief about
destruction of bondage (of karmas) is Nirjara (shedding off).
How can he who does not recognize Bandha correctly, evolve the right
belief of Nirjara? For example, if someone does not know that misery
will be caused by the poison etc. eaten by him, why would then he know
beneficial the remedy of destroying it? Similarly, if one does not know that
the misery will be caused by the karmas bonded in the past, how would
then he know beneficial the remedy of their destruction (Nirjara)?
Further, this Jiva
cannot acquire the knowledge of subtle karmic particles through senses
and also does not know their power of causing misery. Therefore, knowing other
objects as instrumental in producing misery, he tries to destroy them only,
but those objects are not under his control. Moreover, if by chance, for the
sake of removing sorrow, some agreeable association takes place, then that too
takes place as per one's karmas. Therefore, he unnecessarily becomes
miserable by making effort about them.
Thus, due to wrong
knowledge of Nirjara Tattva, wrong belief is caused.
about Moksha Tattva
And (the state of)
complete destruction of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed Moksha
(perfect liberation). How can one, who does not recognize karmic
bondage and all sorts of miseries caused by bondage, have right belief of
Moksha? For example, someone is having a disease; if he does not know that
disease and the anguish caused by that disease, how would then he believe
beneficial the complete eradication of disease? Similarly, this Jiva is
having karmic bondage; if he does not know that bondage and the misery
caused by that bondage, how would then he know beneficial the complete
eradication of karmic bondage?
And this Jiva
does not have the knowledge of karmic matter and their potentiality;
therefore, knowing the external objects as to be the cause of misery, he tries
to destroy them totally. And he knows that he will become perfectly happy by
accumulating the desired materials which he believes to be the cause of
complete destruction of miseries, but this can never happen. He unnecessarily
Thus, due to perverse
faith and owing to wrong knowledge of Moksha Tattva the wrong
belief is caused. In this way, this Jiva entertains wrong belief about
Jiva etc. seven purposeful Tattvas (elements) due to perverse
Wrong Belief about
Punya-Papa (Virtue & Vice)
Tattvas (virtue & vice) are the details of aforesaid Tattvas and
the class of both Punya and Papa is one and the same;
nevertheless, he understands Punya beneficial and Papa harmful
due to wrong belief. Owing to rise of Punya if according to one's
desire some work is accomplished then he feels it beneficial and owing to rise
of Papa if the desired work does not materialize then he feels it bad;
but both are the cause of agitation; hence, both are bad only.
And this Jiva,
due to his own conviction, feels happiness- unhappiness in such conditions.
Spiritually speaking, wherever there is agitation there is sorrow only.
Therefore, treating the rise of Punya and Papa as beneficial and
harmful is nothing but delusion.
And many Jivas,
at times, consider the auspicious- inauspicious thoughts which are the cause
of bondage of Punya and Papa as good or bad; that also is
delusion, because both (types of thoughts) are the cause of karmic
Thus, owing to wrong
knowledge of Punya-Papa wrong belief takes place. In this way,
the nature of perverse faith in the form of misbelief of Tattvas has
been described. This is false; hence, its name is mithyatv
(perverseness) and this is devoid of true belief; hence, the same is termed as
The Nature of Wrong
Now the nature of
wrong knowledge is described. Knowing incorrectly the Jiva etc.
purposeful Tattvas is termed Mithya-Jnan (false
knowledge). Due to this, doubt, perverseness and indecisiveness are caused in
knowing the Tattvas. There, "is it this or that?" - such sort of
mutually contradictory dual form of knowledge is termed doubt (Sanshaya);
e.g.- "Am I a soul or a material body?" such knowledge - And "It is like this
only"- such sort of one form of knowledge contradictory to the intrinsic
nature of the substance is termed perverseness (Viparyaya); e.g.- "I am
a material body" - such knowledge. And "Something is there" such sort of
indeterminate form of thought (knowledge) is termed indecisiveness (Anadhyavasaya),
e.g. "I am something"- such knowledge. Thus, doubt, perverseness,
indecisiveness form of knowledge about the purposeful essential Jiva
etc. Tattvas is termed wrong knowledge (Mithya-Jnan).
Further, the name of
false knowledge or right knowledge is not attributed from the viewpoint of
knowing correctly or incorrectly the purposeless substances (Tattvas).
For instance, if a misbeliever knows a rope as a rope, it is not termed as
right knowledge and if a true believer knows a rope as a snake, it is not
termed as false knowledge.
should not one call right knowledge or wrong knowledge to the clearly
perceptible right-wrong knowledge?
the purpose is only of knowing or ascertaining right-wrong, then whatever
substance is there, the name right knowledge, wrong knowledge is given
according to the viewpoint of knowing it right or wrong. For example, in
describing direct-indirect form of comprehensive knowledge (Pramana)
some substance is taken in view; there knowing it correctly is taken as right
knowledge and knowing it doubtfully etc. is stated as the invalid form of
wrong knowledge. But here the object is to determine the right and wrong
knowledge, which are the cause of transmigration or liberation. In this
connection the right or wrong knowledge of rope, serpent etc.; is not the
cause of transmigration or liberation; that is why the right knowledge or
wrong knowledge are not described here from their point of view. Here the
right knowledge - wrong knowledge are described from the viewpoint of knowing
of the purposeful Jiva, etc. Tattvas.
From this purport
point of view only, in the scripture, all knowledge of a misbeliever is termed
as false knowledge only and all knowledge of a true believer is termed as
misbeliever's knowledge about the Jiva etc. Tattvas is wrong;
you may call it wrong knowledge, but at least call his correct knowledge about
rope, serpent, etc. as to be the right knowledge?
Whatever a misbeliever knows, he does not perceive there the difference of
substantial existence and non- existence, that is why it produces
cause-perversity, nature- perversity and discriminative-perversity. There,
whatsoever he knows, he does not identify its root cause and believes the
contrary cause as to be the real cause; this is cause- perversity. And
whatever he knows, there he does not identify its basic substantial nature;
rather believes the contrary nature as to be the real nature. This is
nature-perversity. And whatever he knows, there he does not identify that this
is different from these and indivisible from these; rather believes
divisibility and indivisibility contrarily; so, this is discriminative
perversity. Thus, perversity (contrariness) is found in the knowledge of a
Just as an insane
person understands mother as wife and wife as mother; in the same way the
misbeliever knows (the Tattvas) contrarily. And just as that insane
person also in some particular moment knows mother as mother and wife as wife,
even then, his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief.
Therefore, his knowledge is not said to be right knowledge. Similarly, a
misbeliever if in some particular moment knows some thing correctly also, even
then his knowledge is not backed by definite and assertive belief or if he
knows correctly also from it he fulfills his purpose contrarily only.
Therefore, his knowledge is not termed the right knowledge. Thus, misbelieve
knowledge is called wrong knowledge.