In the following pages are grouped some
representative transgressions covering the various fields of monastic life
and the punishments prescribed for these.
These are based chiefly on the following
(1) Mulacara (Mul. )
(2) Anagaradharmamrita (Angd.)
(1) Vyovahara (Vav.)
(2) Nissha (Nis.)
(3) Kappa (Kalp.)
(4) Brhatkalpa-bhasya (Brh. kalp. Bha.)
(5) Jitakalpa (Jit.)
One remarkable feature is that the texts
and some of the Bhasas are at variance in the nature of the
punishment prescribed for the same fault. For instance, faults listed
under dhai-pinda, malapahada etc. (under food) have to be met with
caummasiya pariharatthana ugghaiya' according to the Nisihasutta;
whereas for the same faults, the Brhatkalpabhasy, prescribes
'masalaghu'. Does it mean that by the time of the Bhasas, the
nature of punishment was made less harsh?
This list is by no means exhaustive, nor
it is attempted to be so, in view of the size of this monograph.
Alocana, pratikramana and
kayotsarga were part and parcel of the daily routine of a monk's life.
Besides the routine practice of these, these were to be performed on the
(1) Practicing penance without the
permission of the acarya,
(2) Taking requisites of others without
(3) Condemning those who are not
(4) Disobeying the acarya,
(5) Moving out without the permission of
(6) Leaving the samgha without
the knowledge of its members and joining one's own,
(7) Forgetting to perform the
7, 38 ff.
(1) Touching the body of the acarya,
(2) For quarrels,
(3) Transgressions pertaining to study
(4) Becoming passionate when on the
begging round, (5) troubling others.
pp. 503 04.
op. cit., p. 350.
1. For performing improperly alocana,
2. At the fall of worms,
3. Transgressions pertaining to insects,
4. Walking over wet ground or over grass
or wet mud,
5. Crossing knee-deep water for purposes
not allowed by Law,
6. Crossing the river in a boat,
7. After the fall of a book or image,
8. After easing nature on a non-scanned