that there is a steady erosion of basic human values like compassion,
tolerance, austerity, unselfishness, love, universal responsibility, freedom,
justice and environmental ethic which is mainly responsible for the ever
increasing trend of violence manifesting itself in an parts of the world
Believing that it is our responsibility to discover the
ways to avert the imminent catastrophe threatening our existence;
Recognising that non-violence (ahimsa) has in it a
potential to resolve this crisis and it is time we gave serious thought to the
question of training people in no-violent action for social change and
Bearing in mind that the unity of the forces of peace
and non-violence is a must to meet the challenge of violence as enunciated in
the recommendations in the Ladnun Declaration issued by the delegates of the
First International Conference on Peace and Non-violent Action held at Ladnun
(Rajasthan), India from December 5 to 7, 1988;
Considering that the Second International Conference on
Peace and Non-violent Action has been organised from February 17 to 21, 1991
as a follow up action of the recommendations of the First ICPNA with the main
aim of involving peace activists, theorists, scientists, spiritual leaders and
persons concerned from all walks of life in formulating a universally
acceptable programme of action for the orientation and training of people
belonging to different ideologies, faiths and cultural traditions in ahimsa
Expressing our heartfelt thanks to ANUVIBHA for its
continuing leadership in this endeavour,
In Consonance with the spirit of the above
considerations, we citizens of the world hailing from all continents, who have
assembled here in the idyllic surrounding of Vishva Shanti Nilayam (Global
Peace Palace), Rajsamand, India, to participate in this most significant
conference, recognise that we have a common overriding goal of attaining peace
and justice through non-violent action. We offer the RAJSAMAND DECLARATION ON
TRAINING IN NONVIOLENCE (AHIMSA) for peace and sustainable development in the
form of the following observations and recommendations:
The Meaning of Non-violence
The 2nd ICPNA is a humble attempt to build a structure of
peace and non-violence. However, peace is not merely the absence of war nor
non-violence only abstinence from physical violence. It is a holistic and
positive concept encompassing all manifestations of life and society on the
Earth. It includes both structural peace and ecological balance. Non-violence
implies active and dynamic love, respect and reverence for all living beings
that inhabit this planet, attributes of equality, human dignity, poise,
harmony and resistance to tyranny and injustice.
Need of Training in Non-violence
For the past many years, humankind has evolved and invented
numerous methods of training in violence and war. We have been spending
enormous material and human resources on them at the cost of mass hunger,
illiteracy and environmental damage. Besides, violence has been growing
menacingly in different forms. The complexity of the situation that the world
faces today makes it mandatory for us to move further from the principle of
peaceful coexistence towards a more active principle of co-operation. Hence,
training in non-violence is imperative in modem times. If we fail to evolve a
viable scientific system to train and orient people in ahimsa, we shall be
failing in our most important duty towards humanity and society.
Content of the Training in Non-violence
To train people in non-violence, we must combine the
aspects of both individual and community growth and build an integrated
personality with appropriate training of hand, head and heart which will
facilitate the structural and functional excellence of social development. The
objective of this training is to enable all peoples to gain an insightful
understanding of non-violence and peace and the spiritual values on which they
rest, equip them with skills for individual and mass non-violent action,
prepare them for democratic leadership in conflict resolution through
non-violence and help them develop attitudes for harmonious living.
Strategies, Tools and Organisation of Training in Non-violence
We seek participation of concerned young people from all
over the world. Training in non-violence has both its individual and social
dimensions. It should employ such methods as meditation to bring about a
change of heart and attitude in the individuals, persuassion, personal
example, willingness to suffer rather than injure another, moral uprightness,
practice of sharing one's resources with the other, faith in the essential
goodness of all humans and regard for the basic human rights of all. The other
tools of training may include regular classes, community living, games and
sanitation. Training should encourage constructive programmes and social
service. It should also take special care of developing the ability among the
trainees to understand the pulse of the people, public opinion, training in
communications and in audio-visual programmes. Equally essential is the
training in the organisation and leadership of non-violent action. It involves
investigation of the problem, negotiation, conciliation, arbitration and other
processes of conflict resolution such as mobilisation of opinion, planning,
preparation, use of different forms of non-violent direct action including
non-cooperation, civil disobedience and fasting etc.
The Global Role of Education in Peace and Non-violence
Education is the most important instrument of training in
non-violence because it shapes and moulds the human mind. Training in
non-violence and peace should be introduced in education both at the formal
and informal levels to bring an attitudinal transformation.
We make the following recommendations and declare that
their adoption by the institutions and individuals of the world will pave the
way for a peaceful and non-violent world order.
1) UNESCO, National Government and Voluntary Organisations
working in the field of education as well as in the other areas of human
welfare should evolve a programme to introduce global peace education and
training in non-violence both at the formal and informal levels of education.
2) We the delegates to the 2nd ICPNA who have helped in the
formulation of this Declaration take upon us and recommend that all
non-governmental organisations should endeavour to create awareness of the
importance of non-violence at all social levels in order that there might be a
strong public opinion against expenditure on armaments and war, leading to a
political determination to gradually abolish the institutions of war and in
their place establish institutions of peace.
(a) For the proper implementation of the recommendations
contained in the Declaration, a standing committee consisting of the
representatives of the sponsoring organisations of the 2nd ICPNA shall be
constituted with Mr. S.L. Gandhi (ANUVIBHA, Jaipur, India) as Convenor.
The sponsoring organisations are as follows:
1) International Peace Bureau, Geneva (Switzerland).
2) Centre for Global Non-violence Planning Project,
Institute for Peace, University of Hawaii, USA.
3) The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, UK.
4) Non-violence Study Group, IPRA, University of Colarado,
5) New York State Martin Luther King Jr. Institute for
Non-violence, Albany, USA.
6) Institute of Oriental Philosophy, Tokyo, Japan.
7) Xavier Peace Centre, Xavier University, Philippines.
8) Association of World Citizens, San Francisco, USA.
9) World interfaith Colleges Association, Victoria, Canada.
10) International Federation of World Religions, World
Peace Envoy, Thailand.
11) Seville Statement on Violence Support Network.
12) Jain Vishya Bharati, Ladnun.
13) Gandhi Peace Foundation, New Delhi.
14) University for Peace, Costa Rica.
(b) The standing committee shall through its convenor
invite other organisations to join them by endorsing the Ladnun Declaration,
an action plan for world peace and the Rajsamand Declaration on Training in
(c) The standing committee shall, by a process to be
decided by the convenor on the advice of its members, select from among
themselves representatives of not more than 7 organisations to act as an
Executive Committee to work for the implementation of the Ladnun and Rajsamand