Fist Adhikara (1-23) is an introductory chapter in which
the author, after paying homage to Pancaparamesthins39 states the
purpose of his undertaking to write this book. The main object of this
work is to make one’s mind firm on the path of non-attachment to reach
an absolutely unperturbed state of the Self.40 This work is composed out
of devotion (7) towards Jinavacanas that are meant for the benefit of
the lay men. Then the writer, with a characteristic modesty, requests
the scholars not to mind his intellectual weakness and any type of slips
in this work-(8-11). The author says that he is not preaching any new
principle but repeating the ideas which are already told and retold by
ancient Acaryas and scholars (12). He defends this repetition by saying
that just as certain mantras and medicines, which are used repeatedly,
cure diseases of attachment (13-15). Here the author explains the term
‘prasama’ occurring in the title of the present work as a synonym of
vairagya-non-attachment (17). Then the author introduces the central
theme of this work stating that attachment and aversion (raga-dvesa) are
the cause of the karmic bondage in samsara and describes the nature of
the mundane soul (kasayijiva) (20-23).
Second Chapter (24-30) deals with four kinds of passions
(kasayas) viz, anger (krodha) pride (mana), deceit (maya) and greed (lobha)
as the root cause of mundane life.
Third Chapter (31-33) deals with their relations to raga
and dvesa on one hand and to mamakara-(mineness) and Ahankara ego of
‘I’-ness on the other. Raga consists of deceit and greed and dvesa
consists of anger and pride. Raga and dvesa are the synonyms of
mamakara (mineness) and Ahankara (‘I’ness) respectively. The pair of
‘mineness’ and ‘I’-ness are the roots of these four passions. These
four fundamental passions accompanied by wrong belief (mithyadrsti),
want of control (avirati), negligence (pramada) and psycho-physical
activities (yoga of mind, speech and body) are the causes of eight kinds
of karmic bondage of Atman.
In the Fourth Chapter (34-38) the author discusses the
eight kinds of Karmas, their sub-divisions and six types of Lesyas
(color or tint of soul).
Fifth and Sixth Chapters (39-80) explain the cause of
repeated births and deaths and also deaths and also show the pathway to
stop this cycle respectively. Passions, wrong belief, want of control,
negligence and yoga are the cause of accumulation of Karma and are the
root cause of chain of repeated births and deaths. The one who has no
control over senses, engrossed in sense-object enjoyment meets with
death like those of the deer, the mouth, the black bee, the fish and the
elephant who meet with death bound by the rope of their native
tendencies (41-46). The great net created by raga and dvesi can be
completely destroyed by following the right path, right conduct,
austerity, meditation, observing five vows, which lead one to the
complete withdrawal of Self from the psyco-physical activities which in
turn lead to the breakage of the chain of births and rebirths. This
breakage leads to the ultimate freedom I. e., Moksa.
Seventh Chapter (81-111) deals with eight kinds of
prides viz., pride of caste, family, beauty, strength, gain, intellect,
popularity and knowledge which are not only root cause of mental
agitation but cause of long chain of births and deaths.
In the Eighth Chapter (112-148), five kinds of code of
conduct viz, Right faith, Right knowledge, Right conduct, Penance and
Rigour is prescribed for monks of destroying attachment, aversion,
In the Ninth Chapter (149-166) the author discusses the
important conception of 12 Bhavanas known as Aunpreksas on which a monk
has to reflect constantly. Reflection on these 12 Bhavanas leads to
renunciation of attachment to worldly pleasures.
Tenth Chapter (167-181) deals with ten kinds of
Sramanadharma-a virtuous path such as Supreme forgiveness; (Ksanti),
Modesty (Mardava), Straightforwardness (Arjava), Purity (sauca);
Self-restraint (Samyama), Renunciation (Tyaga), Truthfulness (Satya),
Penance (Tapa), Chastity (Brahmacary).
Eleventh Chapter (182-188) teaches us to avoid four
kinds of unworthy talks such as story about women, food, thief and
different countries which generate interest in worldly enjoyment, and to
engage ones self in four kinds of religious talks such as Aksepani,
Viksepani, Samvedani and Nirvedani, which inspire us to perform
In the Twelfth Chapter (189-193) the author mentions the
nine fundamental principles viz., Jiva (soul), Ajiva (non-soul), Papa (
demerit), Punya (merit), Asrava (inflow of Karma), Samvara (stoppage of
influx of Karma), Nirjara (destruction of stock of Karma), Bandha
(bondage) and Moksa (Liberation) and kinds of Jivas.
The Thirteenth Chapter (194-195) tells us that
consciousness is the common defining characteristic of all souls. This
consciousness is also divided into two kinds viz. determinate (sakara)
and indeterminate (ahankara). The former is of eight kinds and the
latter is of four types.
In the Fourteenth Chapter (196-206), the author explains
the six kinds of bhavas i. e. characteristic conditions of the soul due
to audayika (rising state of Karma), parinamika (natural state),
aupasamika (state of subsidence of Karma) ksayika (state of destruction
of Karma) ksayopasamika (state of destruction and subsidence) and
sannipatika (mixed state of remaining five kinds of states.) They are
subdivided into many kinds. The Jiva conditioned by these different
states of Karmas obtains births in different regions having different
senses. The Self exists from the point of view of its own substance,
space and time, and time (202). Real of Substance is that which
possesses the three characteristics of production (Utpada), destruction
(Vigama) and permanence (Dhruva) (204).
Fifteenth Chapter (207-227) gives detailed explanation
of six substances, nature of universe and nine fundamental Tattvas.
Firm faith in these Tattvas is called Samyagdarsana. There are two
kinds of knowledge: direct and indirect (Pratyaksa and Paroksa). The
former is of two kinds and latter is of three kinds.
Sixteenth Chapter (228-242) teaches us about five kinds
of right conduct viz. Samayika, chedopasthana, pariharavisuddhi,
suksmasamparaya and yathakhvata which are chief means of liberation
(228-229), Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct together
constitute the path of liberation. If one of them is absent the path is
In the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Chapters, Dharmadhyana
and its classification is discussed respectively (243-245 and 246-254).
Meditation on dharmadhyana leads one to apurvakaranagunasthana (I. e.
In the Nineteenth Chapter (255-272) the author shows,
how the aspirant gradually ascends to ksapakasreni, by destroying
mohaniyakarmas and after remaining antarmuhurta in the 12th stage, he
ascends to 13th stage which is the stage of Kevalajnana.
Chapter twenty (273-276) deals with the process of
In the Twenty-first Chapter (277-282) the author
explains the process of yoganirodha performed by Kevali. After retiring
from samudghata, the Kevali adopts yoganirodha-elimination of activities
of mind, speech and body.
The Twenty-second Chapter (283-313) deals with the
process of ascending sailesi stage by Kevali and state of Siddhahood.
Kevali, being free from all types of activities, and Lesyas immediately
after the time taken to pronounce five syllables, obtains a state of
Sailesi (283). In this state he destroys the even germs of karmic
matter and simultaneously annihilates Ayu, Vedaniya, Nama and gotra
Karmas and throwing up his body immediately ascends to the to of the
universe, and obtains Siddhahood, which is ever free from the impurities
of matter and Karmas, beyond pain, suffering and transmigration. The
Jiva obtaining this infinite, incomparable, undisturbed state of
happiness, becomes the very essence of right knowledge.
In this chapter itself, code of conduct for householders
is also discussed. This is a preparatory stage for becoming a monk.
Following these principles, householders will obtain heaven after death
and within eight births, being perfectly pure, obtain Siddhahood.