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Editor's Note

 

INTRODUCTION

 

UMASVATI VACAKA�S PRASAMARATIPRAKARANA-A STUDY

  LIFE: FAMILY, CASTE, DATE, SECT AND WORKS
 

PRASAMARATIPRAKARANA IS A WORK OF UMASVATI

 

SUMMARY OF PRASAMARATI 

 

COMMENTARIES ON PRASAMARATI PRAKARANA

  ETHICAL ASPECT OF PRASAMARATI PRAKARANA:
   

ACARA OF THE SADHUS (MONKS)              

   

ACARA OF THE HOUSEHOLDERS   

  PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT OF PRASAMARATI PRAKARANA:    
   

Tattvas

   

SUBSTANCE         

   

 SYADVADA-THEORY OF NON-ABSOLUTISM 

   

CLASSIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE

   

COSMOLOGY 

   

THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA

 

COMPARISON BETWEEN TATTVARTHADHIGAMASUTRA AND PRASAMARATIPRAKRANA.

 

COMPARISON OF PRASAMARATIPRAKARANA WITH JAINA AGAMAS101 AND SOME NON-JAINA WORKS

 

CRITICAL REMARKS ON PRASAMARATIPRAKRANA

 

Prashmartiprakranam l  

 

Ath Shastrasya Pithbandhah: ll1ll    

 

1.  Introduction              

    Ath ksaydhikar: ll2ll      
 

2.  On Passions   

    Ath ragadhyadhikar: ll3ll     
 

3.  On Attachment                

    Ath Karmadhikar: ll4ll  
 

4.  On Karma     

    Ath karnarthadhikardvayam: ll5-6ll    
 

5-6.  On Cause of Birth and Death  

    Ath Madsthanadhikar: ll7ll    
 

7.  On Pride             

    Ath Aacharadhikar: ll8ll  
 

Ath Bhavanadhikar: ll9ll   

 

On Reflection                

    Ath Dharmadhikar: ll10ll     
 

On religious Virtues             

    Ath kathadhikar: ll11ll 
 

On Religious Stories            

    Ath Jivadhikar: ll12ll 
 

On Soul  

   

Ath Upyogadhikar: ll13ll  

 

On Consciousness          

   

Ath Bhavadhikar: ll14ll

 

On States of Soul   

   

Ath Sadvidhdrvyadhikar: ll15ll  

 

On Six Substances         

   

Ath Charanadhikar: ll16ll

 

On Code of Conduct 

   

Ath Shiladgadhikar: ll17ll 

 

Ath Dhyanddhikar: ll18ll 

 

On Meditation                

   

Ath Shrenyadhikar: ll19ll  

 

On Sreni 

   

Ath Samuddhatadhikar: ll20ll

 

On Code of Conduct 

   

Ath Shiladgadhikar: ll17ll 

 

On Samudghata              

   

Ath Yognirodhadhikar: ll21ll 

 

On Yognirodha        

   

Ath Shivgamanvidhanphaladhikar: ll22ll

 

Description of the path of Liberation and Fruits 

 

Appendix

  Jain Books
  Catalog of Books in English
  Catalog of Books in Hindi
  Catalog of Books in Gujarati
  List of Books, Topics & Sub-topics and Authors


SYADVADA-THEORY OF NON-ABSOLUTISM

 The Jaina philosophers held that everything in the world is complex in structure and as such has many aspects.  A thing that is real, has three characteristics of production, destruction and permanence (Pr. 204).  Every object that seems to be permanent is liable to both production and destruction.  Each entity is one in many.  That being so, it would be improper to view a thing in only one of its aspects and to hold, that the knowledge of that thing derived thereby is final.  On the contrary, it should be viewed in its many and various aspects in order that may be properly apprehended.  This view that every object has a multiplicity of aspects is known as Anekantavada, the doctrine of the manyness of real.  The doctrine of relativity of judgment (Syadvada) or Seven fold judgment (saptabhanginaya) is the corollary of this doctrine of relative pluralism (Anekantavada).  The word �syat� means relatively speaking and it signifies that every thing of the universe can be looked at from many point of view.  Reality has infinite aspects which are all relative, conditional and we know only some of these aspects.  Our judgments represent different aspects of the many-sided reality and can claim only partial truth.  All our judgments, therefore, are necessarily relative, conditional and limited.  �Syat� or relatively speaking must precede all our judgments.

 The Jaina logicians distinguish seven kinds of judgment.  Each judgment being relative is preceded by the word �syat�.  Thus it is known as Syadvada or Saptabhanginaya (Pr. 204 commentary).  These seven forms are as follows : 

1.  Syadasti : Relatively a thing is existent.

2.  Syannasti : Relatively, a thing is non-existent.

3.  Syadasti-nasti : Relatively, a thing is both existent and on-existent.

4.  Syadavaktavyam : Relatively, a thing is indescribable.

5.  Syadasti ca avaktavyam : Relatively, a thing is existent and is indescribable.

6.  Syannastica avaktavyam : Relatively, a thing is existent and is indescribable.

7.  Syadastica nastica avaktavyam : Relatively, a thing is existent, nonexistent and indescribable.

 The significance of this Sevenfold judgment is that our knowledge, regarding anything is relative; everything exists from the point of view of its own substance, space, time and form and it does not exist from the point of view of others substance, space, time and form (Pr. 202-6).  A Jar for instance, exists from the point of view of its substance: clay, its space-the room in which it is, its time, the present moment, and its form or mode which is its particular shape-having narrow moment, and its form or mode which is its particular shape-having narrow neck, broad, belly, red color, etc.  The Jar does not exist from the point of view of another substance, say silver or gold, another room, another time and another shape etc.  When we affirm these two different standpoints (existent and non-existent) successively we get the third judgment a �Jar� is both existent and non-existent.  If we want to describe its existence and non-existence simultaneously, than Jar becomes indescribable, i.e., neither real nor unreal.  This is the fourth judgment.  Form of fifth judgment is that, from a particular point of view, the Jar exists and it is also indescribable (Pr.  205-com.).  Because there is no one word which can describe its existence and non-existence simultaneously.  Similarly the statement that the �Jar� does not exist, and is also indescribable, forms the sixth judgment.  Relatively, �Jar� exists, also it does not exist and somehow it is indescribable.  This is the seventh judgment.  These three forms of judgments are really combinations of indescribable with �is� �is not� and �is� and �is not� respectively.  The same theory can also be applied to the soul.  The soul exists from the aspects of its own substance, space, time and form and while from the point of view of anther�s substance, non-soul, it does not exist (Pr. 202).