Translated by A.N. Upadhye
201-202. Having repeatedly saluted the Siddhas, the foremost great
Jinas and the saints, may he adopt asceticism, if the desires for
escape from misery, after taking leave of the family of relations,
being let off by elders, wife and children, and being intent on the
cultivation of knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities and strength.
He prostrates himself before a (great) saint, the head of an ascetic
band, rich in virtues, endowed with distinctive family, form the age,
and honoured by ascetics, saying `Admit me'; and he is favoured (with
admission to the ascetic community).
I do not belong to others, nor do others belong to me; there is
nothing that is mine here; thus determined and conquering his senses,
he adopts a form similar to that in which he is born (yatha-jata-rupadharah).
205-206. The (external) emblem (of a Jaina saint) consists in
possessing a form in which one is born, in pulling out hair and
moustache, in being pure, in being free from harm unto beings etc.,
and in not attending to the body (apratikarma); the (internal) Jaina
(ascetic) emblem, which is the cause of negation of births, consists
in being free from infatuation and preliminary sins, in being endowed
with purity of manifestation of consciousness and activities, and in
having no desire for anything else.
Adopting this (ascetic) emblem (both external and internal), at the
hands of an excellent preceptor, bowing to him and (then)
hearing the course of duties consisting of vows, when one begins to
practise it, he becomes a Sramana (i.e., an ascetic).
208-209. (Five) vows, (fivefold) carefulness, control of (five)
senses, pulling out the hair, (sixfold) avasyakas (or essentials),
nakedness, not taking bath, sleeping on ground, not cleaning the
teeth, taking meals in a standing posture and taking only one meal a
day-these, in fact, have been prescribed, as the primary virtues of
the ascetic, by the great Jinas; he, who is negligent about them, is a
defaulter (who needs to be reestablished on the correct path).
That preceptor, at whose hands they accept the (ascetic) emblem, is
known as pravrajya-dayaka (i.e., the teacher who initiates them into
the ascetic fold); the remaining ascetics, who help to re-establish
them in the right course, when they have committed certain defaults,
are called niryapaka.
211-212. When the monk is carefully conducting (his) physical
activities, if there is a default, to him is then prescribed a (lustral)
course of conduct preceded with alocana (i.e., the report of sins
committed); the defaulter monk should approach a monk (practically)
expert in the Jaina doctrine, should confess before him and practise
what is prescribed by him.
Whether in the company of his preceptor or alone, without (any) breach
with regard to his ascetic course, an ascetic should remain ever
avoiding the attachments.
That is perfect asceticism, when one practises his course ever intent
on knowledge preceded by faith and exerting in the (practice of)
A Sramana does not entertain attachment either for food or for fast,
either for residence or for touring, or for paraphernalia, or for
co-monks, or for unhealthy gossip.
Careless activities of a monk when sleeping, sitting, standing and
walking, are always known as continuous harm unto living beings.
Let the being die or not, harm unto living beings is certain (to
occur) in the case of him who is careless in conduct; there is no
bondage for him, who is mindful of the items of carefulness, by mere
*1-2. If a subtle living organism is crushed or killed with the
contact of the feet in movement of an ascetic who is careful in his
walking towards his destiny, the scripture does not hold him liable
even for a slight bondage as a consequence of that; (the case is
similar to the statement:) it is infatuation alone that is called
paraphernalia on the authority of the spiritual lore.
A Sramana of careless conduct is called murderer of the six (classes
of) embodied beings; if he carefully practises (his course of
conduct), he is forever uncontaminated like the lotus on water.
There is or there is no bondage, when a being dies in the course of
physical activities; bondage is certain from attachment to
paraphernalia, therefore ascetics give up everything.
If there is no renunciation (absolutely) free from (any) expectation,
the monk cannot have the purification of mind; how can he effect the
destruction of Karmas, when he is impure in mind?
*3-5. (If you were to say that) it is (found) stated in certain texts
that a monk accepts a piece of clothing and possesses a pot; (we have
to ask) how can he (with these) be independent and without activities
involving preliminary sin? If he accepts a piece of clothing,
gourdbowl and anything else, necessarily there is involved harm unto
living beings, and there is disturbance in his mind: he accepts the
pot and the piece of cloth, cleanses them, washes them, carefully
dries them in the sun, protects them and is afraid of other (that they
might take them away.)
(If he accepts these things) how then is he not liable to infatuation,
preliminary sin and lack of control?; similarly when a monk is
attached to external things how will he realize his self?
A monk would so conduct (his course of duties), understanding the
(necessities of) time and place, that, when using the paraphernalia,
there should not be any default (with respect to primary virtues) in
accepting and abandoning it.
Let the monk accept that little (quantity of) paraphernalia, which
does not involve bondage (i.e., which is sanctioned by the scripture,)
which si not desired for by men who are self-controlled (i.e., which
is essential for maintaining self-control) and which does not give
rise to (any) infatuation etc.
Even the slightest thought about the body, on the part of him who aims
at the negation of births, is considered as attachment; therefore the
great Jinas have preached non-attention (towards the body).
The religion preached by great saints (i.e., the Tirthankaras) does
not aim at (happiness etc. in) this or the next world (but only at
liberation); then how is it that, in this religion, women are
prescribed an alternative ascetic emblem consisting of clothing etc.)?
In fact, liberation is not said to be possible for women in that very
birth; therefore an alternative (ascetic) emblem is prescribed for
women befitting them.
The nature of these (viz., women) is naturally full of negligence (Pramada),
and hence they are designated as pramada; therefore these women (pramada)
are said to be plentifully negligent.
As a matter of fact, women are liable to infatuation, aversion, fear
and disgust; in their mind (there is) crookedness of a varied type;
therefore they cannot attain liberation (in that very birth).
There is not a single woman, in the whole world who is without even
one of these above faults; their limbs are not closed (?) (samudam),
and hence they need clothing.
In their case there is always the mental mobility and fickleness and
the periodical oozing of blood (at the time of monthly course) wherein
grow subtle human organisms. *12 There is said to be the growth of
subtle organisms in the female organ of generation, in between their
breasts and in the parts of their naval and armpit; then how can
self-control be possible for them?
Women cannot effect (complete) exhaustion of Karmas, even though they
are pure in faith, are endowed with scriptural study and practise a
severe course of conduct.
Therefore the Jinas have prescribed for them an emblem befitting their
nature (i.e., consisting of clothing etc.); those, that are endowed
with family, form and age and practise that course, are called nuns (sramani).
He is a fit one for accepting the ascetic emblem who hails from the
three castes (varnas), whose limbs are healthy, whose age can stand
the austerities, who is of winning appearance and whose character is
free from any scandal.
The loss of three jewels is said to be the (greatest) loss by the
Jinas, even by any other loss one does not remain fit for observing
sallekhana, i.e., the voluntary submission of death.
According to Jainism the (acceptable) ascetic paraphernalia is said to
consist of the bodily form in which one is born, the words of the
teacher, (disciplinary) modesty and the study of the sacred texts.
He is Sramana who has no desires in this world and no attachment for
the next, whose diet and touring are proper, and who is free from
The ascetic becomes negligent or careless, when he is affected by the
four (passions), anger etc. and unhealthy gossip, by the objects of
senses, and by affection and drowsiness.
(Really speaking) the soul of the monk does not eat (any) food; that
is the (internal) penance; and the ascetics are after that. The
ascetics are (as good as) without food, even if they accept faultless
The Sramana possesses the body alone, and even towards the body he
pays no attention of mineness; he yokes the same to austerities
without concealing his ability.
(The proper food consists of) one meal which is not stomachful, in the
form in which it is obtained, which is obtained by begging and by day,
wherein there is no consideration of juices and which does not contain
honey and flesh.
*18-19. There is an incessant growth of subtle organisms of the
nigoda class (similar to the colour of the flesh etc.) in the pieces
of flesh cooked or raw and in the course of being cooked; he, who eats
or touches the pieces or raw or baked flesh, kills, in fact, a host of
many crores of beings.
The unauthorised food (i.e., not sanctioned by the scriptures), which
has fallen in the (cavity of) palms, should not be given to others; he
is unfit to eat (again) after giving it (to others); if he eats, he
must repent for that.
A monk, young or old, exhausted or diseased, should practise a course
of conduct fit for him in a manner that there is no violation of
If a Sramana observes his course of conduct understanding the (nature
of) food, touring, place, time, physical labour, his forbearance and
his bodily condition, he incurs the least bondage.
He, who is concentrated on one thing alone, is a Sramana; such a
concentration is possible for him whose comprehension of the
objectivity is certain; this certainty (of knowledge) is possible from
the study of scriptures; therefore application to the (study of)
scriptures is of the highest importance.
The Sramana, who is lacking in the study of scriptures, does not know
his self and the things other than his self; without knowing the
objectivity how can the monk destroy the Karmas?
The saints have scriptures as their eyes; all the living beings have
sense-organs as their eyes; the gods have clairvoyance as their eyes;
and the Siddhas have eyes in every way.
All the objects, with their various qualities and modifications, are
known from the scriptures: those, who know them learning from the
scriptures, are the Sramanas.
He, whose right faith is not preceded by the (study of) scripture,
cannot possess self-control: so says the sacred text; and if he has no
moral discipline, how can he be a Sramana?
One does not attain liberation (merely) by the (study of) scripture,
if he has no faith with regard to the nature of reality; or one who
has faith cannot attain Nirvana if he is devoid of moral discipline.
The man of knowledge, who is controlled in three ways, destroys within
a breath the Karma which a man devoid of knowledge could destroy in
hundred thousand crores of lives.
Further, he, who has an atom of attachment towards body etc., cannot
attain liberation, even if he knows all the scriptures.
Especially in ascetic life, moral discipline is said to consist in
renunciation, in abstaining from activities (leading to sin), in
refraining from sensual pleasures and in destroying the passions.
That Sramana, who has five-fold carefulness, who is controlled in
three ways, who has curbed his five senses, who has subdued his
passions and who is completely endowed with faith and knowledge, is
Enemies and the members of the family, happiness and misery, praise
and censure, a clod of earth and (a lump of) gold, and even life and
death are alike to the Sramana.
He, who is simultaneously applied to (the cultivation of) the trio of
right faith, knowledge and conduct, is said to have attained
concentration; and he has perfect asceticism.
If an ignorant ascetic, accepting an external object, falls a prey to
delusion, attachment or aversion, he is bound by various Karmas.
In an ascetic, develops neither infatuation nor attachment nor
aversion, he necessarily destroys various Karmas.
According to the (authority of the) scripture the ascetics are endowed
with either pure or auspicious manifestation of consciousness:
amongst them, those endowed with the pure one have no Karmic influx
and the rest have.
The ascetic course of conduct, resulting from auspicious manifestation
of consciousness, consists in devotion to Arahantas etc. and in
showing affection towards those who are applied to the doctrine.
Standing up (when the elderly monks arrive), following them (when they
are going), showing respect (to them) and removal of fatigue: these,
accompanied by salutation and adoration, are not forbidden for monks
having auspicious resultant of consciousness.
Preaching about right faith and knowledge, receiving and feeding the
pupils, and giving instruction in the worship of great Jinas
constitute the course of conduct of monks with auspicious resultant of
He, who renders assistance to the ascetic community consisting of four
classes without causing harm to any living being, is the foremost monk
If an ascetic, in course of rendering assistance to his co-monks,
causes pain to living beings, he is no more an ascetic but becomes a
house-holder, because that forms the duty of a layman.
One should confer benefits on all the Jainas whether practising the
course of duty of a house-holder or of an ascetic through compassion
and without expecting anything in return, even though this involves
A monk (of subhopayoga) should, to the best of his ability, help a
co-ascetic seeing him suffering from disease, hunger, thirst or
Talk with common people, if it results into auspicious consciousness,
for rendering assistance to diseased, revered, young or old ascetics,
is not forbidden.
This course of conduct is good for monks; but it is the best for
householders, whereby alone they (gradually) attain the highest bliss.
The auspicious attachment fruits otherwise according to the object
with which it is associated, like the seeds, at the sowing time, sown
in different kinds of fields.
One, who is devoted to vows, rules, study, meditation and charity and
who is keeping in mind the aims prescribed by a teacher who has
not attained omniscience, will not attain liberation, but attains a
pleasurable condition of existence (to be followed by births again).
Reverence, service and gifts offered to persons, who do not know the
nature of reality and in whom pleasures and passions predominate,
result into wretched births among men and gods.
Since objects of pleasures and passions are described as sin in the
sacred texts, how can those, who are given to them, be able (to cross
and) to help others to cross (the mundane existence)?
That man, who has refrained from sin, who entertains an attitude of
equality towards all religious people and who maintains a band of
virtues, joins the excellent, path of liberation.
Those, that are free from inauspicious manifestation of consciousness
and are endowed with pure or auspicious one, can (cross and) help
other to cross (the mundane existence); one who is devoted to them
Seeing a natural object (in the form of a great saint), one should
perform such duties, the foremost of which is standing up, one is to
be honoured according to his merits: that is the advice (of Jinas).
Meritorious ascetics in this worlds, it is said, should be welcomed
with a stand-up, should be greeted with words, should be served fed
and revered, should be saluted with folded hands and be bowed down to.
Sramanas, skilled in the interpretation of sacred texts and rich in
moral discipline, austerities and right knowledge, should be welcomed
with a stand-up, should be served and be bowed down to by other
It is opined that one does not become a Sramana, though endowed with
moral discipline, austerities and scriptural study, if he has no faith
in the realities, the foremost of which is the soul, as preached by
Seeing an ascetic abiding by the injunctions of the scripture, he, who
ridicules him through malice and is unwilling to do these reverential
duties (unto him), ruins his conduct.
If a monk of inferior merits, thinking (proudly) that he is a Sramana,
expects reverence from one who is more merited, he wanders in worldly
existence till infinity.
If monks possessing more merits with regard to their asceticism,
remain practising (their duties) with (or in the company of) those of
inferior merits, they are victims of false faith and lose their
He, who has properly grasped the interpretation of the sacred text,
who has pacified the passions and who excels in austerities, cannot be
self-controlled, if he does not abandon company with common people.
He, who is pained in mind at the sight of and receives kindly the
thirsty, hungry and miserable, is a man of compassion.
If a monk after becoming a Nirgrantha ascetic, still dabbles in
worldly professions (like palmistry etc.) , he is called a worldly man
(or a commoner), even though he is endowed (externally) with
self-control and austerities.
Therefore, a Sramana, if he desires for release from misery, should
always live with an ascetic of equal merits or possessing more merits.
Those, who have wrongly grasped the nature of realities and are sure
(in their mistaken way) that the reality, according to the creed, is
such, wander long (till infinity) in mundane existence which is full
with the fruits of misery.
He, who has abstained from improper conduct, who is certain about the
nature of reality exactly as it is, whose soul is peaceful and who
maintains perfect asceticism here, will not live long without
attaining the fruit (of liberation).
Those, that have grasped all things properly, have renounced
(attachment for) external and internal paraphernalia and are not
steeped in pleasures of senses, are called the pure or suddha.
He, who is pure, is said to be Sramana; to the pure one belong faith
and knowledge; the pure one attains liberation; healone is a Siddha:
my salutation to him.
He, who practising the course of duties of a house-holder and of a
monk, comprehends this doctrine, realizes, within ashort time, the
essence of the doctrine (namely, the Self).