Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Section - I
Section - II
Section - III
Section - IV
Section - V
  Section - VI

Section - I



By Acharaya Vidyananda


Translation by Sarat Chandra Ghoshal


Opening Verse


From Praman (valid knowledge) knowables are rightly ascertained and from Pramanabhasa (false knowledge), the opposite happens. For this reason, I shall describe the definitions of these as laid down by authorities in a concise manner for the benefit of those who desire a short exposition (of this subject).


I.1. Pramana is valid knowledge of itself and of things not proved before.


I.2. Because Pramana enables acquiring beneficial things and having non-beneficial objects, this is nothing but knowledge.


I.3. That (viz. Pramana) being opposed to Samaropa (viz. fallacies) consists of definiteness like Anumana (inference).


I.4. Apurvartha is that which has not been ascertained.


I.5. Even an ascertained thing becomes so (i.e., unascertained) through Samaropa (fallacies).


I.6. The ascertainment of self is the illumination of it towards itself.


I.7. It becomes its own object, like other objects.


I.8. I know the pitcher through myself.


I.9. Because (in our knowledge) we have an understanding of the subject, an instrumental cause and the verb, in the same manner as the object.


I.10. Just as in the case of objects, there is understanding of itself (the knowledge) without utterance of the word (signifying it).


I.11. Who does not accept it (i.e. knowledge) to be of that manner (i.e. being the subject-matter of experience) when one admits that in Pratyaksa the object is illumined by knowledge?


I.12. Like a lamp.


I.13. The validity of Pramana rises from itself or through another (Pramana).