II.1. This (Pramana)
is of two kinds.
II.2. As it is of two
varieties, Pratyaksa and another (viz.
II.3. (The knowledge)
which is clear is Pratyaksa.
II.4. Clearness means
illumination without any other intermediate knowledge or illumination in
II.5. (The knowledge)
which is partially clear and arises from Indriya
(the senses) and Anindriya (the mind) is
The object and light is not the instrument (of
Pratyaksa knowledge) as the same are capable
of being ascertained as in the case of darkness.
That (is established) from universal
affirmative and universal negative propositions like the knowledge of
mosquito on a hair and like the knowledge of animals which see during the
II.8. Though it (i.e.
knowledge) is not caused by it (i.e. the object), it (i.e. knowledge)
illumines it (i.e. the object) like a lamp.
II.9. Surely (Pratyaksa
knowledge) always illumines objects according to its power
characterised by the mitigation of its
II.10. There will be
non-application in the case of senses etc. if you accept the cause as the
Mukhya or supreme (Pratyaksa)
is clear in every respect, has no dependence on any sense and arises after
destruction of all obstructions by perfection of
Ksetra, Kala and
II.12. Obstruction may
arise in the case of a knowledge which is
caused by senses and which has hindrances.