Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Section - I
Section - II
Section - III
Section - IV
Section - V
  Section - VI

Section - II



Section II


II.1. This (Pramana) is of two kinds.


II.2. As it is of two varieties, Pratyaksa and another (viz. Paroksa).


II.3. (The knowledge) which is clear is Pratyaksa.


II.4. Clearness means illumination without any other intermediate knowledge or illumination in details.


II.5. (The knowledge) which is partially clear and arises from Indriya (the senses) and Anindriya (the mind) is Sanvyavaharika Pratyaksa.


II.6. The object and light is not the instrument (of Pratyaksa knowledge) as the same are capable of being ascertained as in the case of darkness.


II.7. That (is established) from universal affirmative and universal negative propositions like the knowledge of mosquito on a hair and like the knowledge of animals which see during the night.


II.8. Though it (i.e. knowledge) is not caused by it (i.e. the object), it (i.e. knowledge) illumines it (i.e. the object) like a lamp.


II.9. Surely (Pratyaksa knowledge) always illumines objects according to its power characterised by the mitigation of its hindrances.


II.10. There will be non-application in the case of senses etc. if you accept the cause as the thing perceived.


II.11. Mukhya or supreme (Pratyaksa) is clear in every respect, has no dependence on any sense and arises after destruction of all obstructions by perfection of Samagri (Dravya, Ksetra, Kala and Bhava).


II.12. Obstruction may arise in the case of a knowledge which is caused by senses and which has hindrances.