Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Section - I
Section - II
Section - III
Section - IV
Section - V
  Section - VI

Section - III



III.61. In the case of antecedence and consequence, there is no identity or its appearance, for there is no knowledge of these after an interval of time.


Commentary: In this aphorism, it is asserted that the Purvachara and Uttarachara Hetus (i.e. Hetus concerned with antecedence and consequence) cannot be said to be included within the Svabhava-Hetu or Karya-Hetu as accepted by the Buddhists. Svabhava-Hetu is concerned with identity and in Karya-Hetu, one thing arises from another. So in both these cases the two things exist at the same time. But in antecedence and consequence, the two things do not exist together. The example of identity is as follows:- There is no jar in this room, because its Svabhava (identity) is not to be found (that is, nothing resembling its identity is present in it). The example of Karya is: There is fire in this hill, because there is smoke on it. Now these illustrations will show that Svabhava or Karya Hetu cannot include Purvachara (antecedent) or Uttarachara (consequent) Hetus in which

cases there is an interval between two things e.g. It will be Sunday tomorrow because it is Saturday to-day (antecedence), or yesterday was a Sunday, because it is Monday to-day (consequence).


III.62. The future and the past, death and the knowledge of waking are not the causes of Aristas (omens of death) or of rising (in the morning).


III.63. Because that (Karya) happens with the existence of that (Karana) as that is connected with this.  


III.64. Co-existence (is also a separate Hetu) because the things exist independently of each other and arise together.


Commentary: The Sahachari (co-existent) Hetu is also not included within Karya Hetu, Karana Hetu or Svabhava Hetu. As the things have separate and independent existence, this Sahachari Hetu cannot be said as the same as Svabhava Hetu which signifies identity. Also, as these arise simultaneously, it cannot be said to be Karya Hetu or Karana Hetu.


Example of Vyapya Hetu:-


III.65. Sound is subject to modification, because it is a product.


All products are seen as liable to modifications e.g. a pitcher.


This is a product, so this is subject to modification.


That which is not a product is not seen as liable to modifications as the son of a barren woman.


This is a product, so this is subject to modification.


Commentary: In Aphorism 59, it has been mentioned that there are six kinds of Aviruddha Upalabdhi in Vidhi. In the present aphorism an example of the first variety viz., Aviruddha Vyapyopalabdhi is given.


In this aphorism all the parts of the inference are given in detail showing Sadharmya and Vaidharmya, In subsequent aphorisms only the example in short will be given. It may be expanded like the present aphorism in all its parts.


Example of Karya Hetu (effect):-


III.66. There is intelligence in this animal as it shows activities like speech etc.


Commentary: The familiar example `There is fire in this hill, because there is smoke on it' is also an illustration of Karya Hetu.


Example of Karana Hetu (cause):-


III.67. There is shade here, as there is an umbrella.


Commentary: Another example is this: "There will be rain, as potent rain-clouds are seen"


Example of Purvachara (antecedent) Hetu:-


III.68. The Rohini (constellation) will appear (after a muhurta) as the Krittika (constellation) has arisen.


Example of Uttarachara (consequence) Hetu:-


III.69. The Bharani had already risen before this.


Example of Sahachara Hetu (co-existence):-


III.70. There is colour in this Matulinga (fruit) as there is juice (in it).


Commentary: We have finished the description of the six varieties of Aviruddha Upalabdhi. Now follows the illustrations of six kinds of Viruddha Upalabdhi after its definition.


III.71. Viruddha Upalabdhi is also the same (i.e. of six varieties) implying a Sadhya of non-existent nature (or which is refuted).


III.72. There is no feeling of cold here, as it is hot.


Commentary:By refuting (Pratisedha) the feeling of cold, its antithesis (Viruddha) fire and the heat pervading (vyapya) the same is inferred.


Example of Viruddha Karyapalabdhi:


III.73. There is no feeling of cold here, because there is smoke.


Commentary: Here cold is the antithesis of heat the Karya of which is smoke. So this an example of inference of a Karya (effect) of the antithesis.


Example of Viruddha Karanopalabdhi:-


III.74. There is no happiness in this creature because it has grief (the antithesis of happiness).


Example of Viruddha Purvachara Upalabdhi:-


III.75. The Rohini will not rise after the end of a Muhurta as the Revatt has arisen.


Commentary: Another examples of this: Tomorrow will not be a Sunday, because it is Friday today.


Example of Viruddha Uttarachara Upalabdhi:-


III.76. The Bharani (constellation) did not appear before the Muhurta because (now) the constellation Pusya has arisen.


Commentary: Another example of this is: "Yesterday was not a Friday, because it is Tuesday to-day".


Example of Viruddha Sahachara Upalabdhi:-


III.77. This wall is not devoid of an outside, because it has an inside [the Sahachara (coexistent) of the outside].


Commentary: Six varieties of each of Aviruddha and Viruddha Upalabdhi have now been described. Next we proceed to describe the (seven) varieties of Aviruddha Anupalabdhi and (three) varieties of Viruddha Anupalabdhi.


III.78. When (the Sadhya consists of) Pratisedha (non- existence of some fact), Aviruddha Anupalabdhi is of seven kinds viz. non-finding of Svabhva, Vyapaka, Karya, Karana, Purvachara, Uttarachara and Sahachara.


Commentary: There are seven kinds of Aviruddha. Anupalabdhi which cause knowledge of nonexistence of some fact. Not finding the antithesis consists of Aviruddha Anupalabdhi and when this establishes non-existence of some fact, we call it

Aviruddha Anupalabdhi in Paratisedha. This is of seven kinds, examples of which will be given in the following seven aphorisms 79-85.


Example of Aviruddha Svabhava Anupalabdhi:-


III.79. There is no pitcher in this place because (its Svabhava or identity) is not to be found (i.e. nothing resembling its identity is present here).


Example of Aviruddha Vyapaka Anupalabdhi:-


III.80. There is no Sinsapa (tree) here, because no tree is found here.