Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Section - I
Section - II
Section - III
Section - IV
Section - V
  Section - VI

Section - III



Example of Aviruddha Karyanupalabdhi:-


III.81. There is no fire whose potency (Samarthya) has not been obstructed here, because we do not find smoke.


Example of Aviruddha Karananupalabdhi:-


III.82. There is no smoke here because there is no fire.


Example of Aviruddha Purvachara Anupalabdhi:-


III.83. There will be no rise of the Rohini after a Muhurta as we have no knowledge of the rise of the Krittika.


Commentary: Another Example is this: It will not be Sunday tomorrow because it is not Saturday to-day.


Example of Aviruddha Uttarachara Anupalabdhi:


III.84. The Bharani had not risen before a Muhurta because now the Krittia is not up.


Example of Aviruddha Sahachara Anupalabdhi:-


III.85. One pan of this pair of scales does not touch beam as the other one is on the same level with it.


Commentary: Now, the varieties of Viruddha Anupalabdhi (nonfinding of antithesis) establishing a Sadhya of Vidhi (existence of a fact) are being described.


III.86. Viruddha Anupalabdhi in Vidhi is of three kinds:- Viruddha Karya Anupalabdhi, Viruddha Karana Anupalabdhi and Viruddha Svabhava Anupalabdhi.


Example of Viruddha Karya Anupalabdhi:-


III.87. As for example, some disease exists in this animal, because the actions of a healthy body are not found.

Example of Viruddha Karana Anupalabdhi:-


III.88. There is grief in this creature, because it has no connection with its dear ones.


Example of Viruddha Svabhava Anupalabdhi:-


III.89. All things are Anekantika (possessed of different aspects) because we do not find that these have only one aspect.


III.90. The Hetus which arise one after the other should be included within those (which have been described).


III.91. There was Sivaka (a clod of earth resembling a Sivalinga) on this potter's wheel because we see Sthasa there.


III.92. (This Hetu showing) effect of an effect will be included within Aviruddha Karya upalabdhi (as already defined).


III.93. There is no play of deer in this cave because there is a roar of lion. Here there is an effect opposed to a cause. This should be (included) within Viruddha Karya Upalabdhi.


III.94. The use by those who are conversant (with the process of inference) is from existence or non-existence of that universal concomitance (between the Sadhya and the Sadhana).


Commentary: It has already been mentioned (Aphorism 46) that though five parts of Anumana are used for teaching students, really there are only two parts of an inference (Aphorism 37). But those who are conversant with processes of reasoning employ inference through the knowledge of the existence of Sadhya (e.g. fire) always along with Sadhana (e.g. smoke) or the nonexistence of Sadhya where Sadhana is absent. This is amplified in the four aphorisms which follow.


III.95. This place is full of fire, for existence of smoke is only possible if there be fire here or (this place is not full of fire) as smoke does not exist here.


III.96. In the employment of Hetu, the use of Vyapti (universal concomitance) is made. That (Vyapti) is understood by the persons conversant (with the process of inference) from it (viz. Hetu) (without use of Udaharana etc.)


III.97. The Sadhaya is established from this (viz. Hetu) only.


III.98. So it has been mentioned that it is necessary to mention Paksa to indicate the Adhara (abode) of Hetu consisting of universal concomitance.


III.99. Agama is knowledge derived from words etc. of a reliable person.


III.100. Words etc. (signs, symbols and other things of life nature) are causes of knowledge of things through their inherent power in connoting things.


III.101. As for example "The Meru etc. exist."