The subject matter of it (Pramana)
is visaya of two kinds
characterised by samanya (general) and
IV.2. As there is
attainment of the object (as a result of knowledge) from signs of changes
from its original state to a later state preserving its essential
characteristics and from our idea of general and special characteristics.
Samanya is of two kinds being divided into
and urdhvata (samanya).
is the same modification such as Khanda
Munda etc. in the condition of a cow.
is a thing which remains the same through changes such as earth in its
(modifications) sthasa etc.
Visesa (is) also (of two kinds).
IV.7. Being divided
into Paryaya and
Pryayas are modifications in sequence in a
single substance e.g. joy and grief in oneself.
Vyatirekas are different modifications in
different objects such as a cow and a buffalo etc.
this aphorism, the description of the subject matter of
Pramana ends. In the next
samuddesa (section) the result of Pramana
will be discussed.