Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Section - I
Section - II
Section - III
Section - IV
Section - V
  Section - VI

Section - IV



IV.1. The subject matter of it (Pramana) is visaya of two kinds characterised by samanya (general) and visesa (special).


IV.2. As there is attainment of the object (as a result of knowledge) from signs of changes from its original state to a later state preserving its essential characteristics and from our idea of general and special characteristics.


IV.3. Samanya is of two kinds being divided into Tiryak (samanya) and urdhvata (samanya).


IV.4. Tiryak (samanya) is the same modification such as Khanda Munda etc. in the condition of a cow.


IV.5. Urdhvata samanya is a thing which remains the same through changes such as earth in its (modifications) sthasa etc.


IV.6. Visesa (is) also (of two kinds).


IV.7. Being divided into Paryaya and Vyatireka.


IV.8. Pryayas are modifications in sequence in a single substance e.g. joy and grief in oneself.


IV.9. Vyatirekas are different modifications in different objects such as a cow and a buffalo etc.


Commentary: With this aphorism, the description of the subject matter of Pramana ends. In the next samuddesa (section) the result of Pramana will be discussed.