The opposite of it, is
Abhasa of the same.
Commentary: In this
Chapter, the fallacies will be taken up and described. We have mentioned
before hand the nature, number, objects and result of
Pramana. The opposite of these will be fallacies of these. The
fallacies of Pramana are described in
Aphorisms 2-54, those of number are described in aphorism 55; those of
object are described in aphorism 61 and those of result in aphorism 66.
Pramanabhasas (fallacies of
Pramana) are non- cognizance by one's
own-self, knowledge of what has already been known, doubt etc.
Because (such knowledge) does not establish its
VI.4. As (for
example), the knowledge of another person, the knowledge of a thing
previously known, the knowledge of touching grass of a person moving, the
knowledge whether this is a post or a man etc.
Commentary: By the
word "doubt etc." in the aphorism, Samsaya
(doubt), Anadhyavasaya and
Viparyaya are meant. These have been
thoroughly described in the commentary on aphorism 3 section I of this
Samavaya (co-inherence) of eye and juice in a
Pratyaksa is accepted in (things) not clear,
we have its fallacy e.g. cognizance of fire by the followers of the
Buddhist philosophy from sudden vision of smoke.
(accepted) in clearness, (we have) its fallacy (Paroksabhasa)
e.g. knowledge derived from the senses as accepted by the
Smaranabhasa (fallacy of memory) is the
knowledge in one of another e.g. when we (falsely
recognise) Jinadatta as
Fallacies of each of the subdivisions of Pratyaksa
Anumana and Agama are described in Aphorisms
8, 9, 10, 11-50 and 51 of this section.
Smriti or smarana
(recollection) has been defined in Aphorism 3 of section III. We see
Jinadatta. Later on when we see him again, we
recognize him to be that Jina-datta. This is
smriti or recollection. But if we have
remembrance of Devadatta when we see
Jinadatta, this will be a fallacy of
VI.9. Fallacy of
Pratyabhijnana is the knowledge of "this is
that" in things bearing similarity or knowledge or similarity in the
identical thing e.g. in the case of twins.
VI.10. Knowledge of
concomitance in objects not related is fallacy of
The following are fallacies of
Anumana has been defined in Aphorism 14 of
Samuddesa III. Anumana
is employed by using Paksa,
Hetu and Dristanta.
Fallacies of these viz. Paksabhasa,
Dristantabhasa with their subdivisions will be described in the
VI.12. Among them
Paksabhasa (fallacy of the minor term or
thesis) is Anista (un-accepted) etc.
Anista (un-accepted) is (the view of)
Mimamsakas that sound is
VI.14. It is
established that sounds can be heard by the ear.
VI.15. Opposition (may exist) from
Agama, popular acceptance and one's own words.
VI.16. In these
subdivisions, Pratyaksa-vadhita (opposed to
Pratyaksa) may be exemplified by "Fire is not
hot as it is a thing e.g. water".
VI.17. Sound is
without modification as it is something caused e.g. a pitcher.
VI.18. Dharma will
produce grief after death as it is subservient to beings like
Commentary: This is
an example of the fallacy Agama-vadhita. In
all sastras, it is accepted that pursuit of
Dharma will produce happiness after death and Adharma
will cause misery. If we try to establish by inference that Dharma will
produce misery after
death, it will be an example of Agama-vadhita
Anumana (i.e. inference as opposed to the
A human skull is pure as it is a part of the
body of an animal like a conch-shell or oyster.
Commentary: This is
an example of Loka-vadhita
Anumana or inference opposed to public
My mother is barren because she does not
conceive in spite of connection with male like women famous as barren.
Hetvabhasas are Asiddha,
Asiddha is that whose existence
is wanting to Paksa
and which is not definitely established.
is of two kinds: Svarupasiddha and
These will be
described in the aphorisms which follow.
VI.23. "Sound is
perishable because it can be seen by the eyes."
Because it does not exist at all in its self.
VI.25. When there
is uncertainty, if one says to a man of inferior intellect `Here is fire
because there is smoke.'
VI.26. He has doubt
owing to the existence of vapour etc. in the
collection of many elements (earth, water, etc., and he cannot definitely
ascertain whether it is smoke or vapour).
VI.27. To (the
follower of) the Sankhya (philosophy)
: `Sound is perishable, because it is caused (by some one).
Because he does not know (or accept) it.
is concomitance with the opposite of the major term e.g. sound is not
perishable because it is caused.
VI.30. In anaikantika (Hetvabhasa),
(Hetu) residues also in
Vipaksa (in addition to being in Paksa