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Chapter - 2



Can you describe Asharan Bhavana?

Asharan Bhavna means thinking that no other individual can provide a refuge. 

Nothing external can offer the permanent refuge. When death occurs and the soul has to leave the body, there is no one who can save the jiva from this. Wealth, and family, etc., stay behind and you have to face the future by yourself.


Can you describe Sansar Bhavana?

Thinking of worldly life.

In the cycle a of different worldly lives (samsar) the mother can become a wife; a wife can become a mother; and an enemy can become a friend; and a friend can become a foe, etc.  How fruitless is this samsar, where relationships go on changing. Therefore, I should not develop bondage for others.


Can you describe Ekatva Bhavana?

Thinking of being alone.

In this Samsar (worldly life) the Jiva (soul) is born alone and dies alone. It accumulates the Karmas alone and it experiences the fruits of its Karmas alone, too. Who belongs to whom in this world? Though jiva is living in the middle of the crowd, he is absolutely alone. Therefore, give up the attachment for others.


Can you describe Anyatva Bhavana?

Thinking of the soul as separate from the body.

The body and the soul are different and separate from each other. The body is inert, but my soul is the very embodiment of consciousness. The soul is imperishable. It will not die. The body; of course, burns and becomes ashes. Agonies afflict only the body and not to the soul. I am not the body. The body is not mine.


Can you describe Ashuchi Bhavana?

Thinking that the body is unclean.

This body is made up of impure substances like blood, urine, and fecal material, etc. I will discard my attachments for such body and engage myself in self‑discipline, renunciation and spiritual endeavours. The body is made up of the substance that decays very easily.


Can you describe Ashrav Bhavana?

Thinking of the causes of the inflow of karmas.

Ashrav means inflow of karmas. Evil tendencies and actions pollute and corrupt the soul with karmas. Therefore, one must think to be free from all such activities to avoid the inflow of karmas.


Can you describe Samvar Bhavana?

Thinking of taking the action to stop the inflow of karmas.

Samvar means blocking of inflow of karmas. One must think of the tremendous benefits of each Samvar like Samiti, Gupti, Yati‑dharma, etc. One must carry out these activities to reduce the inflow of karma.


Can you describe Nirjara Bhavana?

Thinking of destroying karmas.

By performing austerities, we can destroy our Karmas.  There are such twelve kinds of austerities. Therefore, we should think of when can we perform such austerities to destroy our karmas so that we can be liberated.


Can you describe Lokaswarup Bhavana?

Thinking of the universe.

Think of the creation of the fourteen Rajlok (universe) which are made up of the substances which are subject to the law of origin, existence and destruction. This whole universe is filled with jivas and pudgals.


Can you describe Bodhidurlabh Bhavana?

Thinking of developing faith in the dharmik (religious) principles.

One should think that it is hard to attain human life, healthy body, dharma, and to act according to dharma, etc. It is even more difficult to develop a true and abiding faith in the dharmik doctrines. We should think to make our faith strong and stronger forever.


Can you describe Dharma Bhavana?

Thinking of the influence of dharma.

How much have we been benefited by the Jinas  and theirdoctrines! This life is possible only if there is dharma. We have attained comforts and happiness by the benevolence of dharma.  It would be difficult to live without dharma. One should think of dharma from the practical points of view.


Can you describe Maitri Bhavana?

Thinking of friendship.

Think to be a friend of all beings in this universe. Once you are a friend you can not think bad of anyone, but rather make their life easier.


Can you describe Pramod Bhavana?

Thinking of honoring superiors.

Think of having heartfelt affection, regard and esteem for people who are superior to us in virtues, knowledge and ability. Not to entertain such feelings as jealousy and envy; and not to look at anyone maliciously and with a sinister feeling. Think to be cheerful and happy at the sight of virtuous people; and to express cordial happiness on seeing such people.


Can you describe the Karuna Bhavana?

Thinking of compassion.

Think to show compassion to those who are in distress, want; and to those who are weak and helpless. Think to help them by giving your support to remove their sorrows and agonies.


Can you describe the Madhyastha Bhavana?

Think to stay neutral.

Think to treat with indifference those people who even after realization and knowing the right from wrong, arrogantly and obstinately refuse to walk on the path of righteousness. Think that may be one day they may improve, but I do not have to be affected by their behavior. Think of being in equanimity even in such circumstances.


How many Bhavanas are there?



What kind of bhavanas should one have?

One should entertain and expand auspicious and useful thoughts. One should not allow one�s soul to get entangled in the various materialisrtic events taking place around oneself.


What is the  purpose of bhavanas?

Bhavanas enable people to attain mental  peace, tranquillity, and spiritual uplift.

How many auspicious events are there in the life of Tirthankars? There are five

auspecious events in the life of a Tirthankar.


What is the original word for auspicious events in the life of Tirthankars?

The Jain term for these auspecious events is Kalyanaka.


Can you describe the 1st  Kalyanak?

The first Kalyanaka is the Chyavana Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar�s soul departs from its last life, and is conceived in the womb of the mother.


Can you describe the 2nd Kalyanak ?

The second Kalyanaka is the Janma Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar is born.  The gods and goddesses celebrate this auspicious occasion.


Can you describe the 3rd Kalyanak ?

The third Kalyanaka is Diksha Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar gives up all his worldly possessions and takes the vows of a monk.


Can you describe the 4th Kalyanak ?

The fourth Kalyanaka is Kevalagnan Kalyanaka.

This is when the Tirthankar attains kevalagnan (perfect knowledge). At that time  the Tirthankar re-establishes the Jain Sangh, formed of the four tirthas namely sadhus, sadhvis, shravaks, and shravikas.


Can you describe the 5th Kalyanak ?

The fifth Kalyanaka is Nirvana Kalyanaka.

This is when the Tirthankar dies and leaves this universe and his body forever. He goes to salvation, and becomes free from the cycle of birth and death.


How many Tattvas (Fundamentals) are there in Jainism?

There are  nine fundamentals.


Can you name the Nine Tatvas (Fundamentals)?

Nine fundamentals are:

1) Living

2) Non‑living

3) Punya

4) Pap

5) Ashravas

6) Samvar

7) Bandh

8) Nirjara

9) Moksha.


What is meant by the Ajiva?

Things which do not have life or qualities like breathing, regenerating, etc., are known as ajiva or non‑living things.