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Chapter - 5



What are the different types of Tapasyas (Austerity)?

There are two major types of austerities. They are:

1)      External (bahyantar)

2)      Internal (abhyantar)

Each one of these two are further sub-divided into six groups.


What is theExternal Tapasya (Austerity)?

External austerities are those austerities which when performed can be noticed by other people.


What is the Internal Tapasya (Austerity)?

Internal austerities are those austerities which when performed, can not be noticed by other people.


Can you name the External Tapasyas (Austerity)?

External austerities are:


1) Anasan

2) Unodari

3) Vruti Sankshep        

4) Rasa Tyag

5) Kaya Kalesha

6) Samlinta.


Can you name the Internal Tapasyas (Austerity)?

Internal austerities are:

1) Prayschit

2) Vinay 

3) Vaiyavachcha

4) Vyutsarga

5) Swadhyay

6) Dhyan


What is Anasan Tapa (Austerity)?

Anasan Tapa means fasting for a day, for some days or rest of one�s life by completely renouncing food and water, etc. Anasan is also taken to render death auspiciously.


What is Unodari Tapa (Austerity)?

Unodari Tapa means eating and drinking (water) less than the extent of one�s hunger and thirst during the meals. 


What is Vrutti Sankshep Tapa (Austerity)?

Vruti Sankshep Tapa means reducing the desires. One must renounce some of the items during the meals.


What is Rasa Parityag Tapa (Austerity)?

Ras parityag Tapa means renouncing those kinds of foods and drinks that provoke taste, and increases the strength and excitement. There are 14 sub-types of this austerity. It can be done partially or in total for one time or for prolonged time.


What is Kaya Kalesha Tapa (Austerity)?

.In Kayaklesh Tapa one makes the body suffer by yoga or staying in one position for a longer time.


What is Samlinata Kayaklesh Tapa (Austerity)?

In Pratisanlinata Tapa one controls all senses to stop pleasant and unpleasant temptations, also controls lying, distorting the truth, and sensual talks.


What is Prayaschita Tapa (Austerity)?

In Prayaschit Tapa one confesses the various errors of commission and omission, the faults and the sins committed knowingly or unknowingly to the sadhu,  to the person concerned or to oneself. One says Micchchamidukadam. One fully carries out the prescribed atonement by sadhu.


What is Vinay Tapa (Austerity)?

In Vinay Tapa one becomes polite and respectful towards all.


What is Vaiyavachch Tapa (Austerity)?

Vaiyavachcha Tapa means serving religious teachers, ascetic, virtuous people, sadhu, sadhvies, colleagues, companion and needy people with devotion, including animals.


What is Vyutsarga Tapa (Austerity)?

In Vyutsarga Tapa one stands still and meditates. This austerity is also called Kayotsarga. During this, one renounces the attachment for the body, and takes care of the soul.


What is Swadhyay Tapa (Austerity)?

In Swadhyay Tapa one must study, teach and reflect deeply on such sacred books as to inspire one to attain self‑realization and enable one to save one�s soul from getting lost in the entanglements of the social life.


What is Dhyan Tapa (Austerity)?

Dhyan Tapa means concentrating the mind on the real nature of the soul.


What is the Navkarasi?

One must take food and water 40 minutes after the sunrise. Even the brushing of the teeth and rinsing the mouths must be done after that time.


What is the Porsi?

Taking food or water three hours after the sunrise.


What is the Sadh-Porasi?

Taking food and water four hours and thirty minutes after the sunrise.


What is the Purimuddh?  

Taking food and water six hours after the sunrise.


What is the Avaddh?

Taking food and water eight hours after the sunrise.


What is the Biyasan?

One must take food only twice a day at one sitting each time.


What is the Ekasan?

One takes food once a day sitting in one place. (One should not eat the salad or the raw grains.) One also drinks the boiled water during the daytime.


What is the Ayambil?

One takes food only once in one sitting. Food should be boiled and not have any spices, milk, curd, ghee, oil, and raw vegetables. One drinks only boiled water during the daytime.  It is better if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before. 


What is the Upavas?

Upavas means fasting for twenty-four hours from the sunrise today to the sunrise on the next day, during which one does not take any kind of food or liquids but may drink the boiled water. It is prefered if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before.

a) Tivihar upavas ‑ During this, one does not take any food or drink any liquids except the boiled water only.

b) Chauvihar upavas - During this, one does not take any food or liquids during the day or the night.


What is the Tivihar?

In tivihar one does not take food of any kind including liquids except water after the sunset until the sunrise next day but can take water.


What is the Chauvihar?

Chauvihar means one does not take any food or any liquids after the sunset until the sunrise next day.


What is the Attham?

Attham means upavas for continuous three days.