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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Mangalasutra - Precepts On The Auspicious

Jinasasanasutra - Precepts On Jina's Teachings
Sanghasutra - Precepts Of Religious Order
Nirupanasutra - Precepts On Scriptural Exposition
Samsaracakrasutra - Precepts On the Transmigratory cycle
  Karmasutra - Precepts On Karms
  Mithyatvasutra - Precepts On Wrong Faith
  Raga-pariharasutra - Precepts On Renunciation Of Attachment
  Dharmasutra - Precepts On religion
  Samyamasutra - Precepts On Self-Restraint
  Aparigrahasutra - Precepts On Non-Possessiveness
  Ahimsasutra - Precepts On Non-Violence
  Apramadasutra - Precepts On Vigilance
  Siksasutra - Precepts On Education
  Atmasutra - Precepts On Soul
  Moksamargasutra - Precepts On The Path Of Liberation
  Ratnatrayasutra - Precepts On Three Jewels
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra - Precepts Of Right Faith
  Samyagjnanasutra - Precepts On Right Knowledge
  Samyakcaritrasutra - Precepts On Right Conduct
  Sadhanasutra - Precepts On spiritual Realization
  Dvividha Dharmasutra - Precepts On the Two Paths of Relitgion
  Sravakadharmasutra - Precepts on householders's Religion
  Sramanadharmasutra - Precepts On Religion Of Monks
  Vratasutra - The Precepts On Vows
  Samiti-Guptisutra - Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti)
  Avasyakasutra - Precepts On Obligatory Duties
  Tapasutra - Precepts on Penance
  Dhyanasutra - Precepts On Meditation
  Anupreksasutra - Precepts On Reflection
  Lesyasutra - Precept On Soul-Colouring (Lesyas)
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
Precepts On Spiritual Progress (Gunasthanas)
  Samlekhanasutra - Precepts On Passionless Deaths
  Tattvasutra - Precepts On Fundamental Truths
  Dravysutra - Precepts On The Substance
  Srstisutra - Precepts On Universe
  Anekantasutra - The Precepts On Non-Absolutism
  Pramanasutra - Precepts On Valid Knowledge
  Nayasutra - Precepts On View-Point
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra - Syadvada & Sptabhangi Sutra
  Samanvayasutra - Precepts On Reconciliation
  Niksepasutra - Precepts Of Installation
  Samapana Conclusion
  Virastavana Hymn To Mahavira

38. Pramanasutra - Precepts On Valid Knowledge

 

 

(A) Pancavidha Jnana

Five Kinds Of Knowledge

 

Samsayavimoha-vibbhaya-vivajjiyam appaparasaruvassa.

Gahanam sammam nanam, sayaramaneyabheyam tu. (674)

Such a grasping of the nature of itself and that of other things, as is free from doubt, mistake and uncertainty is called the right cognition; it is of a determinate form and is of various types. (674)

 

Tattha pamcaviham nanam, suyam abhinibohiyam.

Ohinanam tu taiyam, manananam ca kevalam. (675)

The knowledge is of five kinds: Mati-Jnana i.e., knowledge derived through the five senses and the mind Sruta-jnana i.e. knowledge obtained from the scriptures, Avadhi-Jnana (clairvoyance) Manahaparya-Jnana i.e. telepathy and Kevala-Jnana i.e. omniscience. (675)

 

Pamceva homti nana, madisudaohimanam ca kevalayam.

Khayauvasamiya cauro, kevalananam have khaiyam. (676)

Knowledge is thus of five kinds: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience. The first four result from substance cum annihilation of the relevant Karmas, while omniscience result after total annihilation of Karmas. (676)

 

Iha apoha vimamsa, maggana ya gavesana.

Sanna sati mati panna, savvam abhinibodhiyam. (677)

Reflection on what has been perceived, reasoning, questioning, examining, searching, understanding and judging these are the varieties of sensory knowledge. (677)

 

Atthao atthamtaramuvalambhe tam bhananti suyananam.

Abhinibohiyapuvvam, niyamena ya saddayam mulam. (678)

Sruta-Jnana is said to consist in comprehenstion of the meaning of words that are heard or it is derived from the senses and the mind and it as a rule is born of words. (678)

 

Imdiyamanonimittam, jam vinnanam suyanusarenam.

Niyayatatthuttisamattham, tam bhavasuyam mai sesam. (679)

The knowledge which is required through the senses and the mind by hearing or reading the scriptue and which is capable of expressing its content is called Bhava-srutajnana, the rest of the knowledge (acquired through thought-activities and the senses) is matijnana. (679)

 

Maipuvvam suyamuttam, na mai suyapuvviya viseso'yam.

Puvvam puranapalana-bhavao jam mai tassa. (680)

The Srutajnana is acquired through matijnana while the matijnana is not acquired through Srutajnana, but in the act of fortering thoughts, it is the characteristic of matijnana that it precedes the Srutajnana. (680)

 

Avahiyaditti ohi, simananetti vanniyam samae.

Bhavagunapaccaya-vihiyam, tamohinana tti nam bimti. (681)

 

The type of cognition which limits the (direct) knowledge is called (Avadhi-Jnana) i.e., clairvoyance, in the scriptures, it is also called simajnana i.e. .imited cognition. This avadhi-jnana is of two types - viz. one that is born on account of a certain type of birth and one that is born on account of the practice of certain various qualities. (681)

 

Cimtiyamacimtiyam va, addham cimtiya aneyabheyagayam.

Manapajjava tti nanam, jam janai tam tu naraloe. (682)

In this world of human beings, that type of cognition is called manahaparyayajnana, which comprehends other's thought, that is already entertained, that is not yet entertained or that is only half entertained, and so on. It is of many types. (682)

 

Kevalamegam suddham, sagalamasaharanam anamtam ca.

Payam ca nanasaddo, namasamanahigarano'yam. (683)

That type of cognition which is one, pure, perfect, extra-ordinary, endless, is called Kevalajnana, and here as usual the generic word jnana is to be added to the specific word denotative of a particular jnana Type. (683)

 

Sambhinnam pasamto, logamalogam ca savvao savvam.

Tam natthi jam na pasai, bhuyam bhavvam bhavissam ca. (684)

Kevala-Jnana grasps in one sweep all that is in this universe and beyond the universe in its entirety; certainly, there is nothing in the past, future and the present which is not grasped by this type of cognition. (684)

 

(B) Pratyaksa-Paroksa Pramana

Precepts On Direct And Indirect Knowledge

 

Gehanai vatthusahavam, aviruddham sammaruvam jam nanam.

Bhaniyam khu tam pamanam, paccakkhaprokkhabheehim. (685)

That cognition which grasps the nature of things in a proper and uncontradicted form is called pramana; it is of two types-viz. Pratyaksa (direct) and paroksa (indirect). (685)

 

Jivo akkho atthavvavana-bhoyanagunannio jenam.

Tam pai vattai nanam, je paccakkham tayam tiviham. (686)

The word `aksa' means a soul either because it covers the entire range of the things or because it enjoys these things (the tow meanings depending on two different etymologies of the word `aksa' and the type of cognition, which is had be an aksa is called pratyaksa; it is of three sub-types. (686)

 

Akkhassa poggalakaya, jam davvindiyamana para tenam.

Tehim ot jam nanam, parokkhamiha tamanumanam va. (687)

The physical sense-organs and the internal organ i.e. mind, are something alien to an aksa or self, and the type and the type of cognition had through the instrumentality of these two is called paroksa-just like inferential cognition. (687)

 

Homti parokkham mai-suyaim jivassa paranimittao.

Puvvovaladdhasambamdha-saranao vanumanam va. (688)

The two cognitions mati and sruta are paroksa i.e. indirect because they are acquired by a soul through the instrumentality of something alien to itself or because they are born of the memory of relationship grasped earlier, just like inferential cognition. (688)

 

Egamtena parokkham, limgiyamohaiyam ca paccakkham.

Imdiyamanobhavam jam, tam samvavaharapaccakkham. (689)

In a real sense, the cognition acquired through the other sources is paroksa i.e. indirect while cognition acquired directly by the soul is pratyaksa. But the cognition, born of a sense-organ is `pratyaksa' practically so called. (689)