Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Mangalasutra - Precepts On The Auspicious

Jinasasanasutra - Precepts On Jina's Teachings
Sanghasutra - Precepts Of Religious Order
Nirupanasutra - Precepts On Scriptural Exposition
Samsaracakrasutra - Precepts On the Transmigratory cycle
  Karmasutra - Precepts On Karms
  Mithyatvasutra - Precepts On Wrong Faith
  Raga-pariharasutra - Precepts On Renunciation Of Attachment
  Dharmasutra - Precepts On religion
  Samyamasutra - Precepts On Self-Restraint
  Aparigrahasutra - Precepts On Non-Possessiveness
  Ahimsasutra - Precepts On Non-Violence
  Apramadasutra - Precepts On Vigilance
  Siksasutra - Precepts On Education
  Atmasutra - Precepts On Soul
  Moksamargasutra - Precepts On The Path Of Liberation
  Ratnatrayasutra - Precepts On Three Jewels
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra - Precepts Of Right Faith
  Samyagjnanasutra - Precepts On Right Knowledge
  Samyakcaritrasutra - Precepts On Right Conduct
  Sadhanasutra - Precepts On spiritual Realization
  Dvividha Dharmasutra - Precepts On the Two Paths of Relitgion
  Sravakadharmasutra - Precepts on householders's Religion
  Sramanadharmasutra - Precepts On Religion Of Monks
  Vratasutra - The Precepts On Vows
  Samiti-Guptisutra - Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti)
  Avasyakasutra - Precepts On Obligatory Duties
  Tapasutra - Precepts on Penance
  Dhyanasutra - Precepts On Meditation
  Anupreksasutra - Precepts On Reflection
  Lesyasutra - Precept On Soul-Colouring (Lesyas)
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
Precepts On Spiritual Progress (Gunasthanas)
  Samlekhanasutra - Precepts On Passionless Deaths
  Tattvasutra - Precepts On Fundamental Truths
  Dravysutra - Precepts On The Substance
  Srstisutra - Precepts On Universe
  Anekantasutra - The Precepts On Non-Absolutism
  Pramanasutra - Precepts On Valid Knowledge
  Nayasutra - Precepts On View-Point
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra - Syadvada & Sptabhangi Sutra
  Samanvayasutra - Precepts On Reconciliation
  Niksepasutra - Precepts Of Installation
  Samapana Conclusion
  Virastavana Hymn To Mahavira

39. Nayasutra - Precepts On View-Point



Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.

Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)

There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things existence, ignoring all the mutual conflicting characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)

Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.

So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)

That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and incomplete distinguishing. (705)


Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.

So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)

The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example `to say that' all the sound is momentary'. (706)


Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.

Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)

On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya, called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)


Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.

Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)

Sapana, i.e. "calling", is a word, or that which calls is word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called "Sabdanaya" because it graspes the meaning of the word. (708)


Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.

So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)

The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called sabda naya, for example, the word `pusya' denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word `Pusya' denotes a particular `Tarika'. (709)


Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.

Tam khalu sadde visayam, `devo' saddena jaha devo. (710)

The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is also clled `Sabdanaya', for example, the word `deva' generally means God. (710)


Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.

Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)

Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective connotations even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their respective meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)


Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha'bhuo.

Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)

A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by the (etymological) meaning of the word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that "Evambhutanaya". Hence this particular naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)


Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.

Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)

Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is teaching). (713)