Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit – (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara




          It is necessary to emphasise and clearly realise that there are two distoinct categories: Perfect and Imperfect. The Pure Disembodied Soul alone is Perfect. The mundane, matter-clad Soul is Imperfect. By Perfectinhere is meant a condition than which nothing is better forever. One may want �100. For him nothing is better at present than to get �100. But there is no guarantee that he will want nothing, if he gets the �100. Perfection is where there is no want, no need, no desire, no room for further improvement or betterment. Perfect desirelessness, complete non-attachment, imperturbable Vit-rag-ta are connotations of Perfection. Thus it is that Jainism does not believe God, an Almighty, Perfect, Conscious Soul, to be a Creator. Creation means bringing about something which was not before. The mundane soul when it becomes a Perfect Pure Soul, at the end of the `14the Spiritual Stage certainly creates its won perfect condition of Infinite Perception, Knowledge, Power-and Bliss. In this sense, and in this sense alone, God or Sioddha may be said to be the Creator of all the Universe, present, past and future, for the Siddha is Omniscient; and all the Universe, with all its substances, with all their attributes and modifications, in all times and places, becomes subject to this All-Seeing Omniscience, and thus it may be said to create the Universe. Here Creation means the attainment of Perfection, of Omniscience, of Omnipotence of Godhood, of Siddhahood. In no other sense, creation is possible in Jainism. F creation means the making or bringing into existence of something which was not before, (excepting that booming Perfect means bringing into existence the condition of Self-perfection and Omniscience, which was not before), it implies the conscious Creation of something necessary and useful, or of something unnecessary and useless. If the former, why was a useful thing not made before; if the latter, the Creator is a frivolous wastrel, or smiley puerile in making, and then breaking the Universe.


          If the Universe is created by God as an absolutely new thing, it msut follow that before its creation God was not Krita Kritya, one so perfect that nothing remained to be done by him. If he only recreates a destroyed Universe. Then the jaina explanation (that the Universe s uncreated and passes through a sort of birth and death at the junction of Avasarpini and Utsarpini semi-cycles o time) is simple and sufficient. F it be said that there must be some creator (as distinct from some Cause or Co-existence or Sequence) of everything, then there must be some Creator of God, and so on ad infinitum.


          Further, like crease like. God as Pure Soul can create only Living Soul. How then can he create non-living unconscious matter out of himself?


          The Jaina doctrine is that the lifeless, non-living, unconscious Universe is eternal and uncreated, and it evolves and revolves within its won countless attributes and modifications for ever, and that it undergoes even radical, catastrophic changes in Space and Time, which the history of all nations records as the Deluge, the mahabharata, the Great War, the Pralaya, etc., etc., etc. is this doctrine not more soul-satisfying, simple and stamped with cogency and Truth than an attempt to explain things by the doctrine of creation? Creation thus being only the creation of its perfect condition by the pure Soul, it is easy to see that all else in the Universe, from the point of view of conscious, living, knowing Soul, is Imperfect.


          Obviously Imperfection is only tolerated because and so long as we cannot get rid of it. Therefore all worldly endeavor, being the child of the living Soul�s union with non-living matter, is to be merely tolerated; to be shunned; to be renounced. When renunciation is impossible or impracticable, it has to be merely tolerated and controlled and regulated so as to keep it within the limits of the most minimum harm to Perfection.


          A clear intellectual perception and a persistent, practical pursuit of this in our daily life is essential to keep us true to the Center of Truth. No verbal jugglery, any pious deception of self or others will. Save one from error and harm if this Central Truth is lost sight of. All Politics, ethics, Laws and Economics will be engulfed in stygian, chaotic darkness, if once the human mind, the soul, loses or loosens grip of this First Fact of life.


          On the other hand, if this beacon-light is kept in view, nothing in the world can delude us long or deep. Our joys and sorrows, our successes and failures, our illness and health, births and deaths of relations and friends, victory and defeat, prosperity or adversity,�all these will be easily and instinctively referred o the Central Guide, and dealt with in their own proper perspective. All our worldly valuations depend upon our angle o vision. Ugliness is Beauty in the wrong place, or seen from the wrong angle. High treason is Patriotism from the wrong viewpoint. The State and Politics create chaos in an attempt to save the country and citizens from disorder and disruption. Marriage sanctifies apparent monogamy and note seldom becomes an effective cloak for mental and even physical polygamy. Trade and Commerce meant for natural and equal distribution of things of Necessity and use often result in extravagant waste or stagnation of such thins in the hands of the rich few, to the agonisin misery of the poverty-stricken many. Even Religion, the sign and mantle of God, has cloaked Satan more than the Light-ever-lasting against whom Satan rebelled forever. Indeed there is nothing good or desirable in the world, which to some extent or other is not locked up in the arms of its contributory. Verily, the extremes meet literally. Life means Death. Death breeds Life. The extremely rich are extremely poor. The possessionless are the richest. The crown of thorns is ever the real, ultimate adornment. The cup of misery is the only joy-giving nectar. Prussia and Prakriti and inextricable interlocked. Brahma and Maya lie mingled together; non-cans say which is which. There is only one way out o the den of this Duessa. It is to recognise the reality this den and also of the flowerful glade of real roses outside. Till the rose lade is gained, the dry den must be tolerated and regulated.

          In fine, there is no aspec or detail of practical life where he teachings of Shri Kunda Kunda will not be of immense utility. Every where they will lay bare the deepest truth about the question inland, and give the most lucid and lam guidance in the handling and solution thereof. Obviously the touchstone of the eternal Truth as laid down in the book is to be applied by every man or woman according to the point in hand and in the light of surrounding irumtances of Substance, Place, Time, and the object in view. In this sense, Jainism may be said to be he apotheosis of Relativity with with Eastern has made the Western World familiar.


          Dravya, Kshetra, Kala and bhava from the eternal quaternary for our particle guidance. The same questions and be and even must be answered differently according to the differences in substance, place, time and circumstances. This gives a knockout blow to rigid consistency, and conservative orthodoxy, social or political, and perhaps indicates the wonderful essential sameness of religion and true conduct in different forms in different countries and ags.


          Great is the power of Purity and Truth. Therein aspect of religion�Supreme Foreignness, Hunmiliy, Straihforwardness, Truth, contentment, Self-control, Austerity, Renunciation, Possessionlessness and chastity or Self-absorption, are of eternal value, guidance and inspiration. They are God-given and God giving. We reach God through them. They negate the sins and passions of Anger, Pride, Deceit, Greed, etc. Sin and sorrow also are as eternal and infinite and indestructible as soul and salvation. You cross the ocean of samaras. You never destroy it.


          The Bhavyas or Liberals only attempt ot follow the path laid down by the arhantas. But mundane misery must ever remain unlikable in its extent and length.


          The motion and movements of mater are not necessarily the signs of life. Matter may be moved by soul. Then also it is moved by the non-soul partner of soul in its embodied condition. For Pure Soul has no desire or need to move mater of any kind. Thus in a way mater is moved by matter only. In other words, soul is not the Faust of any motion, except when the soul is impure, soiled with its connection with matter an then it becomes he cause of motion. Even Love and art an the noblest and highest forms of endeavor in life are material an renounceable. A beautiful form is mater born a result o the physical body made of assimilative molecules (Aharaka Vargana). Love is only an effect upon the mind produced by this form of Beauty. The soul may also be affected by deep, devoted Love win to this Love reinforcing a pure kind of Delusion which again is Karmic matter. Similarly Art. The Artist�s unity with his all-absorbing aim in Painting, Poetry, Melody, Sculpture or Architecture is only a child of mater, which is subtle, pure, non-harmin, but all the same mater, which soils the soul and stands between it and is full realisation. Similarly, religious practices, worship, postures of asceticism, etc., all the ladders to spirituality are material and mater-born. They fall into the category of non-soul. They are obviously not the soul in its entire fullness, in its perfect purity. Hy are helps for the soul to achieve self-realisation. But they are not the soul. As pneumatic belts or upturned floating pitchers are helps o a swimmer in water, but are no the swimmer, the practices of religion, even the hides of them, the sinecures and most earnest pursuit of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct are all mundane matters. They have no place in the region of pure souls. They are material, mundane, is-liberation. As long as the soul is fascinated by or dependent upon or even in association with any them, its connection with matter, with Karma, with Samaras is not severed, and the mundane soul does not achieve the dignity and status of selfhood, of being its own pure self, of being a liberated soul, pure for ever.


          Latest science has begun to perceive the existence of millions of atoms in a pinhead, revolving in a terribly continuous fashion. This is a great help to understand Jainism. Jainsim posits the existence of an infinity of matter, i.e., of infinit atoms and molecules. If a pin-head has millions of atoms, how many atoms must a hut or a palace or a street or a city have� How many atoms must there be in a whole country or continent, inan ocean? How many in our Earth, in the Moon, in the Sun? In our solar system? In all the solar systems in the starrysky? How many in the whole Universe? Certainly, infinite.


          Again, it is clear that a pin-head has no life, when by life we mean a manifestation of soul or consciousness or attention bemoans of the 5 senses, respiration, etc. the presence of millions of atoms in a pin-head or in a speck of dirt on the paper or the pen or on the chair does not prove that the pin or paper or pen or chair are alive or have a soul. The multitudinous movements of attar and its uncountable variations and transfigurations do not demolish the eternal wall of distinction between soul and non-soul, between the living and the non-living. The living now, as ever, has consciousness and attention. It alone has this. None else can be or is conscious (chetana) or capable of attention (Upayoga). The non-living never possessed this sourness; never can and never shall possess consciousness. It shall never have the capacity of attending to anything; it shall never have knowledge of anything. It can not know. Janna is not its forte and never can be.


          This is the one primary distinction between Living and non-Living, the ignorance of which is the fertile mother of may pitfalls in Philosophy and Metaphysics. The reat teachers of Jainism insist upon this distinction in very lucid, persistent and unmistakable language. They emphasise with easel�s repetition that the Pupil, the Disciple, the earnest Seeker after Truth must have a firm, un-falterin, un-loseable grasp of this basic FACT of the Universe, that the Living and thereon-Living substances quite exhaust the Universe, and make up a perfect division of it by dichotomy, and that the Living is the Living and never anything else, and the Non-Living is itself and never Living.


          This lesson was taught in the great, soul-purifying Gathas of Samaya-Saraji by Shri Kunda Acharya in the first century B. C.


          Samayasara is full of the one idea of one concentrated divine unity. It is and persistent and emphatic about the soul�s Identity wih Itself being the only living Conscious Reality as pure Mahomedanism is about the vahdaniyata of God or Monistic Vedantism about Para-Brahma. This is the only one Idea, which counts. All Truth, Goodness, Beauty, Reality, Morality, Freedom is in this The Self and It alone is true, good, lovely, real, moral. The non-Self is error, myth, mithyatva, ugly, deluding, detractor from and obscurer of reality, immoral,� worthy o shunning and renunciation, as bondage and as anti-Liberation. This Almighty, all-Comprehensive, claim of SELF-ABSORPTION must be perfectly and completely grasped for any measure of success in understanding Shri Kunda Kunda Acharya�s works, indeed for the true understanding of Jainism. Few are the works, if any, extant of Jainism as digested of old by the Apostles and Omniscient after Lord Mahavira; and with the doubtful exception of Swami Kartikeya�s Anupreksha none is older than Shri Kunda Kunda�s. The tradition is much older. It is unbroken, continuous. Indeed it is claimed to be Eternal. But in its written form, no work is older than the Soul-analysing, Soul-clarifying, Soul-illuminating stanzas of Shri Kunda. They sparkle with one life and shed one white lustre, namely, the Divine, Limitless nature of Soul when absorbed in it self. Sva-Samaya or self-absorption is the key-note, the purpose, the lesson, the object, the goal and the center of Sri Kunda Kunda�s all words and teachings. The Pure, All-conscious, Self-absorbed Soul is God and never less or more. Any connection, Causal or Effectual, with the non-Self is a delusion, limitation, imperfection, and bondage. To obtain Liberation or Deification this connection must be destroyed. Thus and then the �bound� soul, bandah, becomes the Liberated Soul. Khuda, �Self come to self, Zat-e-paka, �Pure Enity.� The man becomes Man. The Son of man returns ot His father in heaven. Man becomes HIMSELF. Man becomes GOD.


          To guard against any misunderstanding of Jainism, this Central Teaching, this clear golden goal must ever be kept in mind and in view.


          It may well and legitimately be asked: what is the practical use of this Jaina idea of self-absorption?


          The answer is: The mere insight into and knowledge of this Real Reality, is of everyday use in the conduct of our individual and collective lives. It is a true and the only panacea for all our ills. Its rigour may be hard. Its preliminary demand may occasion a wrench from our cherished habit, customs, and fashions of thought and action. But its result�which is immediate, instantaneous and unmistakable,�justifies the hardship and the demand. The relief and service, the sure uplift of ourselves, the showering of lam balm, by the practice of self-realisation, upon the sore souls of our brethren and sisters justify the price paid. Indeed it is merely the temporary yielding of a hollow, fleeting pleasure for the attainment of a real, permanent happiness and Peace, which once gained, can never be lost. Once the soul has had its first dip into its own milk white nectar ocean of SELF; in Christian phrase, once the Soul has seen the Presence of God, it can never go away form it for ever. It must come back to the Presence sooner or later, and oftener; till in the end it is always THERE and nowhere else.

          To this an obvious criticism would be directed that thus is making man angels or at least faultless supermen, whereas humanity consists at best of frail, feeble, faulty human mortals. This is quite true. Humanity can never become a community of angels. Our passiontossed hearts must keep us generally deluded, weak, imperfect. But the practice of Self-Realisation makes us less deluded, less weak and less imperfect, and it brings us one or many steps nearer that condition of our purified and strengthened consciousness which is free from delusion, weakness and imperfection. Self-discipline and self-respect regulate the others into a self-guided harmony, which is a helpful reflection of God Himself.

          Once you sit on th rock of Self-realisation, the whole world goes round and round You like a crazy rushing something, which has lost its hold upon you and is mad to get you again in this grip, but cannot. The All-conquering smile of the Victor (Jina) is on your lips. The vanquished, deluding world lies dead and impotent at your feet.



April 20, 1927.                                                                                            J.L. JAINI.