Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  I - Samayasara Samayaprabharitam



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          11.  Meditation verily must be performed in (right) belief, knowledge and conduct.  But they all three (are) the soul, therefore perform meditation in the (pure) soul (itself).



          This is another example of both the standpoints.  The practical standpoint explains in detail that the path of liberation is a combination of right belief, knowledge and conduct, while the real standpoint insists upon meditation of the self only, because self-realisation without any detailed and wavering consideration of belief, etc., it the only ultimate path to liberation.

          As belief, knowledge and conduct are inseparable qualities of the self, so the practical point of view has served the same purpose of pointing out the self.  This view is presented for one who does not know that these jewels of right belief, knowledge and conduct are only three facets of the one full, perfect soul.


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          12.  The saint, who (is) always attentive to this soul meditation, follows (true) right conduct.  He attains liberation from all troubles in a short time.



          Here self-meditation is said to be the only way for freedom from all wordly miseries.  It is the real path of liberation.  If any saint follows all practical rules of sainthood without defect, but is not attentive to self-meditation and self-realization, he cannot destroy the Karmic fetters of the soul and free himself from mundane bondage and miseries.  It is only in the furnace of self-absorption that Karmic dirt is consumed, and the inflow of Karmic molecules prevented, and the old Karmas prematurely shed off, The person, who realises his own pure self, enjoys true happines and freedom from the cares of this life and sows seeds of pure future salvation.


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          13.  The practical standpoint does not yield the real meaning.  But the pure (or real) standpoint has been said to give the real meaning.  The soul dependent on the real standpoint verily is a right-believer.



          Practical standpoint is a manner of describing a substance in a way which is not literally true of its reality.  To call a soul a man is true only from the practical point of view.  Really the soul as such is quite free from matter.  It is neither human nor sub-human; neither hellish nor celestial.  Taking into consideration the present condition of the soul in a body of manlike form and in manlike actions, the soul is termed a man.

          One who does not realise this distinction clearly cannot know the soul rightly, and therefore he cannot be a right-believer.  He alone is a right believer who knows and believes that soul is soul and nothing but soul, and that it is perfectly pure, full of its own real attributes of knowledge, peacefulness and happiness, etc. Although for exchange of knowledge in our mundane life, the practical point of view is necessary, yet knowledge from this view merely without knowledge of the real standpoint cannot reveal the truth.  It is belief in real truth only which.  Can make a man a right-believer.


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          14.  The real standpoint expounds pure substance.  It should be meditated upon by the seers of real substance.  But the practical standpoint is said (to be of use for) those who (are) fixed in the lower thought-activity.



          Those who have mastered the real standpoint and are able to keep their attention fixed upon self-meditation do not require any help from the practical standpoint; but when their attention is diverted from the self and is on the point of falling into other thought activities (as also for those who are not fit enough to master the real standpoint), this practical standpoint is a great support.  Reading the scriptures, preaching the truth, writing spiritual books, worship of Arhats, feeding the poor, comforting the afraid, educating the ignorant, serving the needy, relieving the afflicted, etc., etc., are said to be the duties (Dharma) of a right-believing layman from the practical point of view.  They should be adopted, when the mind is unable to fix itself on self-Meditation.  Just as when one wants pure gold, and it is not procurable, it is better to have impure gold than not to have any at all; so one who aims to real standpoint may take support from religious practices from a practical standpoint.  The practical is an auxiliary cause for the real point.


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15. The ascertainment, from the real standpoint, of soul, non-soul, merit and demerit, inflow, stoppage, shedding, bondage and liberation is right-belief.



          These 9 Padarthas or categories are only phenomena of the same noumenon.  The real standpoint establishes the essential identity of the self-absorbed soul, round which the other eight group themselves.  Speaking, therefore, from the real stadpoint self-absorption alone is right-belief.  There are two fundamental categories of the universe, soul and non-soul, each independent of the other in its real essence.  Right-belief points to the pure soul as the great reality.  The other eight only help us to see the accidents, which hinder the self-realization of the soul.  It is merely; to emphasizes caution that these distinctions are made.  The man pursuing the path of self-realization is absorbed in his real quest.  He ignores things, which do not concern his aim.


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          16.  Know that (person to be one of) real standpoint who sees the soul unbound and untouched (by Karmic and physical matter, like a lotus-leaf by water), not other than itself (in all its mundane existences, like gold in its various forms, as ring, brecelet, necklace, etc.), steadfast in itself (even as the sea at rest), inseparable (from its attributes, as a dismond from its brilliance, etc.), and not united with impure thoughts (which are non-self, as water is not united with hest or solidity both of which are non-water).



          The author here describes the person who has gained the real standpoint.  It is he who realizes the soul as one whole individuality without any distinctions at all.

          In common parlance, we speak of the soul as bound and touched by Karmas, as embodied in the various conditions of existence- celestial, human, sub-human or hellish, But the aim of the real standpoint is to see to divested of all bondage, as a really dis-em-bodied entity, free from the accidents and circumstances of its visible embodiment.  Again, we speak of the soul in the different modifications of its attributes, changeful and inconstant, as differing in its attributes and affected by passions and thought activities.  Here too the real standpoint differs.  The soul is unchanging and constant, as one substance, all peaceful and free from all thought activities.  It is like the lotus-leaf, gone down in water, touched by it but only superfically.  It can never be other than its real self, whatever the transmutations it suffers in the course of its mundane existence.  Like gold, changing outward, forms-yet essentially one substance-the soul is ever itself, unchanging like an ocean under a spell of peaceful calm.  As to its attributes they are no separate phenomena.  They are implicit in it, even as the briliance which is in, and has no existence apart implicit in it, even as the brilliance which is in, and has no existence part from the diamond to which it belongs in its relation to activities, whether of thought or action.  It has a character fundamentally opposed to impure thought.  There is no, and can never be, any real union between the soul and these non-soul, matter born thought-activities, etc.