Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  I - Samayasara Samayaprabharitam



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          33.  By lauding this material body (which is) separate from the soul, a saint understands that the perfect deity is lauded (and) adored by him.



          When uttering praises of the body of a living Arhat, or of an image, the saints know all along that this lauding refers not to the body, but to the soul whose inner peace and purity has made the body adorable.  It is the Perfect Soul, the Deity that is being bowed to.


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          34.  That (lauding) is not from the real standpoint: the qualities of the body are not found really in the perfect soul, He, who lauds the attributes of the perfect soul, really lauds the perfect soul.



          The right-believing worshipper knows perfectly that lauding of the bodies of the great men is only from the practical point of view.  From the real point of view, only that lauding which refers to the soul�s qualities directly can be called a proper lauding of the Tirthamkra and Acharyas.


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35. As admiring th city can never become admiration of the Kind, (so by) lauding the qualities of th body the attributes of the perfect, soul are never lauded.


          Here the author illustrates his doctrine. As the praise of streets, roads, houses, gardens, etc., of city is not necessarily the lauding of the qualities of the king of the city, so admiration of the body is not the admiration of Omniscience. True adoration lies in the homage to the soul�s own special pure attributes. Examples of this real adoration are given in the following Gathas.


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          36.          He, who having conquered the senses realises the soul (as) full of its own inherent knowledge, him they, who (are) saints (and) knowers of the real standpoint really call a conqueror of the senses.



          This Gatha illustrates the second aspect of home. The saint with perfect vows ascends the subsidential ladder and practices pure concentration, by virtue of which all kinds of deluding Karmas subside and he attains to the 11th stage of subsided delusion. There he is called a conqueror of delusion.


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          38.          And when destruction of delusion takes place in a saint, the conqueror of delusion, then verily he is called delusionless by the knowers of reality.



          The same saint as conqueror of delusion, falling back from 11th to 7the stage, ascends with destructive right belief on the destructive ladder, where he destroys the deluding Karma altogether. The destruction of delusion opens the path to reality. It is the ascent to the 12th stage of delusionlessness.

          It is the third aspect of real adoration. In this way all references about the real attributes of the soul constitute real homage, because they directly laud to the real nature of the soul, the meditation of which is essential to liberation.


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          39.          As self-knowledge renounces all (impure) thought activities, knowing him to be other than itself, therefore, self-knowledge must be recognised as renunciation in reality.



          From the practical point of view the giving up of vowlessness, worldly possession and sense-gratification is called renunciation. From the real standpoint, when a right believer, diverting his attention from all what is other than himself, concentrates himself in his self, i.e., is absorbed in self, without any consideration of renouncing anything, there is real renunciation of he non-self by the soul. The author here means to say hat the saint who is unable to realise the true nature of his own soul cannot be called a renounce, even if he has given up all worldly things and is practicing sevre austerities. Practical renunciation is for the sake of self-realisation; and true renunciation is only where there is self-absorption.


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          40.          As any man whatsoever knowing another�s thing to be as such gives (it) up, so the (right) knower renounces all non-self-thought-activities knowing them to be non-self.



          So long as a person does not realize the distinction between his own and other�s possessions, he might think, as his own the things, which really do not belong to him. But as soon as he knows the truth, he, as a right and hones man, gives up all attachment to them and remains content with what is his own. Similarly a right believer, realizing the truth, understands fully the nothing except his own self with its own pure attributes belongs to him. He at once renounces all attachment o non-self and becomes content with and absorbed in his own self.


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          41.     Delusion has no concern with me. I am only the atentive  one. The knowers of pure soul call me as having no concern with delusion.



          The author points out that not only riches, family, kingdom and other outer things, but even the thought-activities of delusion and attachment which are due to the operation of deluding-karma, do not apportion to the soul. A righ-believer should always consider himself to be above any attachment, and centered in his own pure consciousness.