Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  II - Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)



Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva).


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          44.          Some ignorant persons, who do not know (what) soul (is), and yet declare other (than soul to be the) soul, describe soul as (if it were identical with) attachment (to worldly objects), and (as) Karma.


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          45.          Others consider the intense or mild action of the feelings of attachment as soul and others (consider) quasi-Karmas as soul.


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          46.          Others (consider) the operation of Karma as soul, (and others consider that) soul is that which is (the result of) the intense and mild qualities of the fruition of Karmas.


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          47.          Others believe soul to be both the soul and Karmas combined together, and some believe the soul to be the result of the combination of Karmas.


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          48.          Thus, in many ways, (persons) of perverse intellect call the soul other (han itself). (Such persons) re therefore classed by the knowers of Reality as (those who) describe the non-soul as soul.



          Gathas 44 to 48 describe a few wrongs an perverse views about the nature of soul. Practically all that is said in these views can apply to a mundane, imperfect, impure soul, while as a matter of fact this weak deluded embodied soul is a miserable shadow of the great life which the SOUL in reality is.

          Karmas are matter made up of very fine karmic molecules. Physical bodies are formed of physical or Aharaka molecules, and are also matter. Attachment, etc., all passionate thought-activities and their mild or strong characters are due to the effect of deluding karma, which is also matter. The operation of all Karmas or its mild or strong fruitiness also material.

          Thus, he who believes these matter-born and material cuases and effect to be of the essence of soul cannot be a true knower and seer of the reality of the SOUL.

          The object of emphasizing the reality of the soul is that if we clearly understand our true nature, much of the bitterness, selfishness, cruelty, injustice, narrowness, crime, immorality, sin and suffering will be removed; we shall rise hgh above our impure and contaminating surroundings, and in our daily worldly lives shall be enabled o conduct ourselves so that ultimate liberation will be assured, and the world will be turned into a stage for the attainment of Godhood.


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          49.          (It is) said by the Perfect Conqueror that all these conditions are produced by the operation of material Karmas. How can they be called souls?



          The conditions contemplated by the last Gathas are quite material and the soul is fire of all material impurities. Its pure reality, in tis real essence, has already been discussed in the first chapter.


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          50.          The Conquerors say (that) all he eight kinds of Karmas are all material. What is called pain is the (resulting) fruit of their maturity.




          Pain, disappointment, disease, death, etc., are material from the real standpoint, because they are the result of karmic matter. Here the operative thought-activity of the soul is also called material, as being the result of material Karma. All the impure conditions of a mundane soul are due to the operation of eight kinds of Karmas. Their fruition, on maturity, is what we all pain, because the soul is thereby obstructed from enjoying true and independent happiness born in the realization of self, shorn of interruptions, for all itme. Only a soul free from the eight Karmas is always happy and perfect. There are eight Karmas of which the following four are called destructive (Ghativya):�(1) knowledge obscuring which prevents knowledge, (2) conation_obscuring which prevents conation, (3) deluding Karmas which delude right belief and right conduct, (4) obstructive, which prevent the manifestation soul-powr. The other four are called non-destructive (Aghatiya). They are (1) feeling Karma, which brings about desirable and undesirable objects of pleasure-and-pain-feeling, (2) age karma, which determines the duration of the soul�s imprisonment in a condition of life, (3) body-making Karma which determines the formation of beautiful or ugly body, (4) family-determining Karma which invests the mundane soul with a high or low position or status. The most harmful of the 8 is the deluding karma, which deludes the soul from right belief and right conduct. One who subdues delusion conquers all the 8 karmas and become a perfect conqueror.


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          51.          All these thought-activities, attachment, etc., (are) souls. This has been described by the Conquerors as a statement from the practical standpoint.



          If a question is reaised: Attachment and all other thought activities having been described in Jain Scriptures as due to the soul�s modifications whilehere they are said not to belong to the soul, why should there be such different opinions on the same subject? The Acharya answers: �Here they have been said to be material and not belonging to the soul, from the real point of view. Only from the practical standpoint, we can ascribe these material and impure though-activities to the soul. Both opinions are correct, but each from its own different standpoint.�


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          52.          From the practical standpoint the remark is made of (his) military forces; �the king has gone out� (although not ) the king only (but also his military forces are) gone out (with him).



          It is from the practical point of view a mere attribution of soul, its base accompaniment. Really otherwise the soul, pure, and in the full possession of its essential self, stands out alone. In common parlance, for instance, we speak of the king going out, though it would not be without many others going out with him.