Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  II - Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)



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          53.          And similarly from the practical standpoint this has been said in the Scripture that thus non-soul thought activity, attachment, etc., (is) the soul. From the real standpoint the soul in itself is alone.




          The soul in itself is alone; it is separate from the impure thought-activity, attachment, etc. in practice, however, it is united wih its own non-self thought-activity, which is the result of the operation of its Karmic matter. Practical standpoint speaks of a thing so as to misrepresent its reality for the sake of explanation to the people in general. As a king may go out with his army, and it may be said that the king has gone out. Literally the words mean that it is the king only that has gone out. The gong out of the army�s not expressed into this imperfect, practical way of talking. Similarly the impure thought-activities are called soul, because they are connected with the soul. It we analyse, we shall find the soul as a pure knowing substance, entirely different from these thought activities.


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          54. Know the soul (to be) without taste, without colour, without smell, invisible, without sound, with consciousness as its attribute, cognisable by no (external) sign and without any material shape.



          This Gatha distinguishes the soul form matter, which ahs necessarily colour, smell, taste, touch and a material shape. Material molecules can be visible and known by their figures. The soul on he other hand is the immaterial conscious substance and can only be realised by itself in self-absorption. It is no doubt with some form which in reality has power to pervade throughout the whole universe but owing to the operation of body-sub-class of body-making Karma, it ontracts and expands according to the particular body occupied by it in its mundane condition. Thus it is said to be equal in size to the body which it occupies, but in the liberated condition it retains only a little less than the outline of its last body, because the body making Karma being destroyed contraction and expansion of the soul are no longer possible.


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          55.          In the soul, there is no colour, neither smell, nor taste and neither touch, nor materiality, nor body, nor (physical) figuration, nor (physical) constitution.




          This Gatha further expands the description of the soul as given in the previous Gatha.

          The material body has all these qualities while the soul has none of these.


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56.     In the soul, there is no attachment, nor hatred; nor is there (ny) delusion, nor Pratyaya (i.e., the assess of bondage, wrong-belief, etc.) neither Karmic matter, and there is no quasi Karma matter also in it.




          From the pure real point of view the soul is devoid of all passionate thought-activities due to the operations of deluding Karma. Causes of inflow and bondage of Karmas are wrong belief, vowlessness, carelessness, passion and vibratory activity, through mind, body and speech. All these are the results of the operation of Karmas. So in a real soul, all these ecauses of bondage are absent. Material Karmic molecules out of which Karmas are bound in the form of our Karmic bodies and assimilative or Aharak molecules, out of which physical, fluid and assimilative bodies are formed, are all mater. They can never be soul. Soul is always free from these,


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          57.          In the soul, there is no Varga (i.e., a group of the degrees of a particular attribute in an atom), nor Vargana (i.e., a group of Vargas), nor Spardhaka (i.e., a group of Varganas) whatsoever, neither any degree of attachment or impure thought-activity, nor any degree of fruition.




          Varga, Vargana, Spardhaka are all material. Degrees of attachment and those of fruition appear in impure, unbodied souls, but they are entirely due to operation of karmic matter only. The real soul is different and always free from all these impurities.