Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  II - Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)



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          63.          Common people, seeing some one looted, in the way, say, �the way is looted,� but no way whatsoever is (really) looted.


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          64.          Similarly, seeing the Karmic matter and colour of physical mater in the soul, (it) has been said by the Conquerors from the practical standpoint, �this colour (is) of he soul.�




          The expression �This road is looted� only means that the travelers proceeding by that road are robbed, and not that the road itself is the subject of robbery. Similarly, in common parlance, from the practical standpoint, we speak of mundane souls as black, white, red, one sensed or five-sensed, grows, fine, beautiful,, ugly. This is but the practical point of view. These phrases are not true in their literal sense. The wise know that colour, touch, taste, senses, etc., are attributed of matter only, and cannot properly be predicated of the true soul. From the pure real standpoint therefore, the soul is only itself, pure, perfect and immaterial; and all the qualities of colour, etc., are true of it only from the practical point of view, as in is mundane condition it is bound with matter, and these qualities are rightly predicable of matter.


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          65.          Similarly taste, smell, touch, bodily-figure, etc., which have all been described (before), (have been described) from the practical standpoint:�thus do the seers of reality preach.




          All the conditions produced in souls bound up with karmic matter, as described in Gathas 55 to 60, are ascribed to souls from the practical point of view only. Even the spiritual stages or the gradual increases of puriy are not of the nature of a soul, when it is considered from the rally point of view. The soul is quite free from all these soul classes, soul-quests and stages. They are relations and conditions springing up from its connection with matter.


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          66.          In particular incarnations of mundane souls colour, etc., are (found). But in (the souls) liberated from cycle of existence there are no colour, etc., whatsoever.




          Colour, etc., cannot be the attributes of a soul. Attributes are always inseparable from their substances, while colour, etc., are only seen in the material bodies, as belonging to matter. As soul is connected with them, they too are ascribed to souls from the practical point of view. When souls are free from material bondage, these vanish like passing sunshine and shade. Had they been attributes, they would not have become disassociated but must have been found in pure souls also.


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          67.          And also if thou holdouts certainly all these conditions (to be) in the soul, really, then in reality (there) does not remain (any) difference whatsoever between the soul and the non-soul.



          The special qualifications of matter are colour, etc, which distinguish it from soul and other immaterial substances. If these attributes be taken to be of the inseparable nature of the soul matter alone will be the existing substance. But that is impossible because the nature of consciousness which is he inseparable nature of soul is evident to all, and is not found in non soul substances.


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          68.          If (thou believes) colour, etc.,to be (inseparably connected) with mundane souls, then mundane soules will acquire materiality.



          This in fact amounts to identifying matter with soul.