Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  II - Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)



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          69. O thou, of perverse intellect, thus from thy mode of talk the material substance would become soul. And then matter, having attained Liberatoin, will acquire soulness.



        In discarding the real standpoint, we lose all distintion between soul and non-soul.  For, if the soul is inseparably united with matter and material conditions, in Liberation also it will carry this inseparable matter with it. That is, matter will attain Liberation- Liberation is absolute freedom from Karmic matter. That is, matter will attain freedom from itself. This is absurd. There fore the real standpoint is essential to a proper consideration of soul. The fact is that though we may find colour, ect., and all material conditions in mundane souls, they are not the attributes of the soul. Water may be called dirty by being mixed with mud; but it cannot change it self in to mud. A wise man always knows that dirtiness is a quality of mud and not of water. Similarly a soul may be called impure, angry, proud, bad, good, ect., owing to its connection with Karmic effects, but it is merely saying so in coming mon speech.  Really the soul cannot become other than what it is in its own pure nature.


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          70. One and two, three and four, and five- sensed souls, gross and developable (Paryapta) and their opposites (fine and undevelopable Sukshma and Aparyapta) (these are) natures (Prakriti) of body � making (Nama) Karma.


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          71. These classes of souls (14 Jiva samasa) are formed by their own material  modification, influenced by their auxiliary causes. How can they be called souls (in reality)?



          A mundance soul is entangled in the bondage of the body- making Karma. It is of 93 kinds (vide Gommatasara Karma- Kanda , S . B .J ., Vol . VI.) . The natures enumerated in Gatha 70 are inluded in these 93 sub- classes.  Mundane souls are called one-sensed, ect. , Owing to the condition of the physical body as determined by the operation of this body � marking Karma and its 93 sub- calasses and innumerable varieties in these 93 sub-calasses.  They cannot be of the soul�s own nature. Thus, from the real point of view, souls are free from all these material conditions .


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72. In the Scripture the souls are said to be developable, undevelopable, fine and gross , (because ) the soul�s name is given to the body from the practical standpoint .


          Here  again the author c lears up a doubt which may be entertained by a student who has read only such Jain scriptures in which the practical point of view is mainly dealt with, and in which all these conditions ares predicated , being conditions of the soul .  Though ascribed to souls, souls by their own nature, are really not these.  The soul in its pure state is free from the distinction of developability or otherwise .


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16.           . And  these spiritual stages which are said (to be) due to the operation of deluding Karmas , how can they be souls ?  They are always said to be devoid of (pure) consciousness .


Commentary .

          The so-called 14 spiritual stages are not the soul�s real pure conditions.  They are not found in liberation, in pure souls.  They are due to the bondage of souls with deluding Karma and to vibrations caused by the operation of body- making Karma. Shri Kund Kunda Acharya has done great good to seekers of Truth by pointing out the key of knowledge, for whosoever understands things only from practical point of view cannot acquire right belief (vide Gatha 14) .  One- sided view means wrong belief.  In this second chapter, the author has refuted all the views of wrong-believers who described soul in different ways; and has proved that it is a real substance quite apart from all impure thought � activities. It is potentially God.    This belief that I am God is a cause of attaining Godhood by concentrating one�s attention upon one�s Godhood itself .

          The Author reiterates again and again the primary distinction between the Living and the non- Living .   The two contradict each other.  The one can never lose its own aattributes and acquire the essential and special attributes of the other .  The one can never become the other.  The Living can in no way poossibly become tho non- living.  The non � Living can never become the Living.  The Living and it alone has Life, Consciousness, Attention, knowledge and therefore moral and spiritual responsibility.  The non- Living is incapable of Life, Consciousness, Attention and knowledge.  The non �Living substance, Matter, alone has touch, taste, colour, ect. , Forming the infinite variety of the objects of the Univerese.  The non � Matter Soul can never have touch, taste, colour ,  etc., etc., the attributes of Matter and of it alone.  Indeed, the Soul � Pure Soul � may be said to b;e the Monarch of Siddha shila , the Abode of the Liberated, at the top of the Universe, and of the Whole Universe nd non- Universe only from the point of view of its Omniscience.  The Vibration, the Delusion, the Cololur and mundane existence of the Universe is certainly Matter and it alone.  Is Matter not thus a full and true paraphrase of Satan, as the theological coception of Evil , Sin, Temptation, Deslluastion, Weakness ,  Sosrrow, ect., ect.- the ever � pressent and seemingly so powerful an antithesis of God ? In the aspect of Jainism as insisted upon by the Great Saint Kunda- Kunda in the first century B . C., in this book, God versus Satan becomes Pure Soul versus Matter.  The tempter, seducer, deluder and Jailor of Soul.  Our mundane condition is a child of Matter.  The deluded Soul is bound with all its variety and attraction and might is absolutely incapable of becoming anything but Matter itself, of of making soul anything but the Soul itself.  Indeed here, the Holy Preceptor Kunda-Kunda  rushes up to the highest highest heights of pure monism of Vedsanta, but is not captured by it.  In glorifying the Soul and in insisting upon its independence of and entri es freedom from Matter, he never forgets in the least the equal independence of and entire freedom from soul,of Matter.  The two are there.  Both are mighty in their separate, individual natures.  It is only a deluded person, who mistakes their temporary union and resultant mundane life as altering the true inner nature of either of the two.  The thing to remember is that all mundane life is Matter-born, Matter.  All its variety is Matter.  This should be clearly realise.  The Soul is different and quite distinct from this; beautiful net and coil and dance of matter, PraKriti, of the Samkhya school of Philosophy.  The spectator may be engrossed in the dancer, nut he is not the dancer.  The king may be in prison; but the King is not prison, nor is the prison the King.  And neither can ever become the other.  The two aaare entirely different; and any view to lthe slightesty degree contrary to this, spells delusion, mistake perversity or wrong belief. The right � believer knows the unbridgeable gulf between the two and realises the Soul as a susreme, essential, primary, eternal, indestructible reality.