Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  III - The Ethic of Action



The Ethic of Action


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          74. And so long as he does not know the special difference between the two (i.c., the pure) soul and the (thought) inflow (in the form of anger, ect.) ; till then he is ignorant. (Such a) soul indulges in anger, ect. (as being one with them) .


Commentary .

This  chapter contains the refutation of the wrong belief which takes the thought- activities of anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc., to be the soul�s own actions and the soul to be their actor.  So long as a soul does not recognise its own true nature which is passionlessness, it identifies itself with the passions of anger, etc.  Yet an ignorant man, the deluded mundane soul, can never realise his true SELF as being really devoid fo all thought- activities and full only of his own (Parinamika) thought- activity.  The ignorant man indulges freely in anger, etc.  He is subjected to inflow of karmas, owing to this peryerse belife, and suffesrs the miseries of mundane existence.


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75. In the soul indulging in anger, etc., the accumulation (the soaking) of Karmas takes place.  Thus has the bondage of the soul been described by the Self-seeing.


Commentary .

Bondage is of 4 kinds � (1) Parkriti (nature) which varies according to the particular king of Karmic molecules which combing with the soul according to the chartacter of the vibrations of ming, sppeech of body, which produces the inflow; (2) Pardesha (molecular), according to the less o more number of Karmic moleculas bound at each instant; (3) Sthiti (duration) , the duration of bondage is determined b;y the degrees of passions ; (4) Anubhaga (fruition) . the kind of fruition, mils of strong, is determined by the degree of intensity of passions.  Deluding Karma is the chief cause of bondage, which results in mundane wanderings and sufferings.  It is of 28 kinds. (Vide Tattvartha Sutra, Chapter 8, by Mr. J. L. Jaini, S .B. J., Vol II .)  Out of them wrong belief (Mithyatwa),  and the foru errorfeeding passions (Anantanubandhi kashaya)  bring about such bondage as is the chief cause of sufferings in hellish and sub- human conditions of existence . The souls who have subdued them and become right- believers (Samyak- drishti) bind Karmas owing to other passions, but their bondage is golden, soft and pleasant compared with the galling prick and pain of the iron-thorns of hellish and sub- human bondage.  These gilt- caged souls are born in celestial and human conditions of pleasant and agreeable circumstances.  This bondage does not hindesr the path of liberation.  It is wrong belief and error-feeding passions, which are the main cause of continuous eyele of existences. One who has conquered them must be liberated after sometime, which in the infinity of time is almost nothing.  A wrong believer on the other han identifies himself with impre thought- activities as if they were his own actions.  A right-believer knows them to result from the passion Karmas.  He takes them to be not his own real thoughts.  He believes that his real thoughts are pure.  Thus ignorance and wrong belief are here shown to be the chief causes of bondage .


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76.  But when by this soul is realised the special difference between the (pure) soul and the (thought-activity causing) inflow, then (there is) no bondage in that (soul) .


Here is emphasised the fact that the knower of Truth is free from bondage, and that when knowledge of the truth about soul is acquired, bondage, which is the cause of infinite mundane lives, ceases.  When a person realises the purity of his soul an knows that the thought-activities causing inflow of karmas are not his, but are due to deluding Karmas bound with his soul, he gives them up, and bondage slackens of ceases.  Then he becomes a right � believer.  totally free from the bondaage of the stong Karmas which are bound by ignorance and deep-rooed wrong belief.  A right-believer may be said to be free evern now , because he knows the path, and must follow it so long as he retains the right belief .


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77. (When the soul) has known the impurity of inflow-thoughts and (their ) contrariety (to the soul) and (their being) causes of mundane misery, then the soul turns back from them .


Commentary .

          A wrong believer who indulges in impure thought- activities does not recognise them to lbe foreign to his own inner essence.  A right- believer knows that anger and other passions are impure, quite contrary to the nature of his soul, and also that they are the causes of physical sufferings, and that if they do not delude him from Himself, he cannot suffer trouble in the four canditions of exisstence.  From the moment that he thus believes them to be his real enemies, his intimacy with, and friendly attitude to wards them, ceases and he determines to be freed from them as soon as possible Right belief spells vicotry over the passions; wrong belief and error-feeding passions are at once brought under control .  Though a right- believer, without vows in the 4th spiritual stage, and with on,y partial vows in the 5th stage, has passionate activities of the life of a layman, his right belief makes his knowledge right, and his right knowledge leads to right conduct.  He is alive to the weakness of his conduct and tries to strengthen it as far as possible.  His practice of self-realisation commences from the time he becomes a right-believer.  He right belief is indeed a form of self-realisation.  The practice of self-realisation is the real conduct.  It produces purity which shortens the duration of passion-breeding Karmas and weakens their strength, By gradual practice, when the vowless soul subdues the partial-vow-preventing passion (Apratakyanavarna Kashaya) he adopts the vows of a layman.  There are eleven grades of the house-holder�s life.  So far as he weakens the operation of other passion, he advances higher in these classes.  When by the practice of self-realisation he subdues the total-vow-preventing passions (Pratyakyanavarana Kashya he becomes a saint with full vows.  Thus really,. Self-knowledge and self realisation bring about complete freedom from all-deluding Karma, and when the deluding Karma is destroyed,. He becomes an Omniscient within one antar muhurta and is the adorable of all animals, men and celestials as the Ideal Perfection of Peace and Bliss.