Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  III - The Ethic of Action



��׾� ��׸�ִ�פ ��� ����פ ���֕��פ ��� �ָ���� �֕��֋ l

������ �����ӟ��� ׾��� �ִ֯�׸���Ӵ�� ������� ׾��� ll 83 ll

        ���ׯ� ��׸�ִ�ן� �� ����֟��㟯֪��� �� �ָ���ֵ֯��Ե�� l

        ��֮�� ��֮֮��ׯ� �ֻ�� þ�����׸��ִִ֮����׾ִ֬�� ll 83 ll


          83.  And certainly the knower, knowing his own thought-activity of many kinds, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the form of non-self substance.



          A right-knower knows that there are pure and impure thought-activities of soul.  These thought-activities are all modifications of the soul�s consciousness.  He knows that these modifications of soul or of consciousness are not material.  He further knows that his own consciousness, though similar, is distinct from the consciousness of every other individual soul.  He therefore takes his conscious thoughts as his own but does not identify himself with any other soul or with the non-soul substances to which those thoughts may relate.  He believes that matter modifies into its own material modifications and each soul modifies into its own individual; consciousness.  Soul and matter cannot modify themselves into one another.  Soul wills always remains soul, matter will remain matter.  From the pure real standpoint a right-knower knows that soul is capable of only pure, peaceful and blissful thought-activities, and he should therefore realize them in order to achieve self-absorption.


        ��׾� ��׸�ִ�פ �� ����פ ���֕��פ �� �ָ���� �֕��֋ l

        ������� �����ӟ��� ׾� �� �����ֻ��δ�ֱ��ִ���ӟ�� ll 84 ll

        ���ׯ� ��׸�ִ�ן� �� ����֟��㟯֪��� �� �ָ���֑֯��Ե�� l

        ��֮�� ��֮֡�ׯ� �ֻ�� �����ֻ�����Ա��ִ֮�ӟ�� ll 84 ll


          84.  And certainly the knower, knowing infinite (kinds) of fruition of material Karmas, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the forms of non-self substance.



          In this world mundane souls reap the fruits of their past Karmas in the form of pain and pleasure and other conditions of body-formation, etc. A right-knower knows that as soul is really free from material bondage, so it is also free from different kinds of fruition.  Neither riches nor calamities produce any deep effect on the mind of a right-knower.  He is neither overflowed with pride and joy on gaining a desired object, nor is he downcast with sorrow and grief on separation from agreeable and connection with disagreeable objects.  He believes true happiness to be his own nature and independent of all other things.  He is satisfied with the feeling which fills him in the state of self-realisation.  Thus he does not identify himself with the Karmas, and is absorbed in the nature of his soul, altogether unaffected by Karmas.


        ��׾� ��׸�ִ�פ �� ����פ ���֕��פ �� �ָ���� �֕��֋ l

        �����ֻ֤���� ׯ� ���� ��׸�ִ�פ �֋��� ��־����� ll 85 ll

        ���ׯ� ��׸�ִ�ן� �� ����֟��㟯֪��� �� �ָ���ֵ֯��Ե����� l

        �����ֻ֦��ִ�ׯ� �֣�� ��׸�ִ�ן� þ�����Ծ��: ll 85 ll


          85.   Similarly matter-substance also is shaped into its own modifications, (it), neither modifies, nor assimilates nor is transferred into the forms of other substance.



          Just as from eternity a soul is bound with Karmic matter, and binds fresh Karmas, and reaps the fruits there of, without however itself becoming matter, or something other than what it really is; so matter though externally bound with soul, and always changing into new Karmas by the mundane souls vibrations and passions forms the souls bodies, etc., yet it never becomes other than itself, i.e., mere lifeless, innocuous matter.  Matter can never modify into soul, or the vice versa.  The Jain doctrine does not subscribe to the view that all matter and soul etc., have their origin in one Great Soul or Creator, or that the soul has no real separate existence, and that all its conscious activities are due to modifications of lifeless matter only.  According to Jainism both soul and matter are real.  Each one of the infinite with its own separate existence and destiny, according to its own actions and spiritual progress.  The eternal union of soul and matter or the bondage of soul by Karmic matter means mundane existence; their separation, liberation.  Nothing is annihilated; neither matter, no soul; both are eternal in their nature and attributes.


        ��߾֯�׸��ִ����� ����֢�� �����ֻ�� ��׸�ִ��ן� l

        �����ֻ���������״֢�� ����� ��߾��� ׾� ��׸�ִ�פ ll 86 ll

        ��߾֯�׸��ִ������ �����ԟ�� �����ֻ��: ��׸�ִ��ן� l

        ����ֻ������׮�״֢�� �֣��� ��߾���sׯ� ��׸����ן� ll 86 ll


          88.  Material molecules are transformed into Karmas (of 8 kinds) by reason of the (mundane) soul�s thought-activity: similarly the (mundane) soul also is transformed (into its impure thought-activity) by reason of (operation of) Karmic matter.



          Though the soul and matter are two separate substances, they both act and react upon each other in the mundane phase of their existence.  For example, the thought-activity of a potter becomes the cause of the formation of a pot; and a pot becomes the cause of the thought in the potter�s mind of building similar pots.  The real cause of a pot is clay, the matter of the pot itself.  But the thought-activity of the potter�s mind becomes an auxiliary cause.  So the old Karmas become the auxiliary causes of modification of soul�s vibrations and passions.  The mundane soul, bound with Karmic matter, becomes affected by their operation of old Karmas, with impure thought-activities and vibrations, which become auxiliary causes of inflow of fresh Karmic molecules and of their bondage with soul in the form of Karmas.  This fact of mundane life must be fully understood; so as to leave on room for the deluded belief that the Soul can in any way become one with these thought-activities, passions and vibrations.


        ��׾� ������פ ������������ ��߾��� ������ ����� ��߾������� l

        ���΋�����������״֢���� �� ��׸��ִ�� ������ ������ׯ� ll 87 ll

        ���ׯ� �����ן� ����������֮�� ��߾�: ����� �֣��� ��߾������֮�� l

        ���ή���ꮵ�׮�״֢��� ��� ��׸��ִ�� ��֮���� �����ׯ� ll 87 ll


          87. The soul never produces the attributes of Karmic matter; similarly the Karmas (never produce) the attributes of soul and of the modifications of these two, know each one to be the auxiliary cause of the other.



          This emphasises the view stated in the previous Gatha.  Every substance is a combination of its own attributes.  All its attributes with all its modifications are inherent in that substance.  The common attribute of individuality (Aguru-laghu) keeps each substance separate from all the other substances.  It prevents any substance or group of attributes and modifications from becoming another substance or group of attributes and modifications.  One substance can never become another.  They experience mutual and auxiliary actions and interactions.  Space locates substances.  Time gives duration, newness, oldness, continuity, change or permanence.  Dharma helps the movements of souls and matter; Adharma, the cessation of movements.  Mighty matter invests the potentially Almighty Soul with the Karmic and other bodies, and thus makes the Monarch, the Lord of the Universe, act the comedy and tragedy of endless cycles of an earthly existence.  The Almighty Soul itself owns and masters all; other substances by his knowledge of them.  All; substances possess the attribute of knowability.

          The great Samsara is really a drama of two principal actors; matter is an auxiliary cause of producing impure thought-activity of attachment, hatred, pain, and pleasure etc., while the mundane soul�s impure thought-activities become causes of modification of matter into Karmic bondage, formation of food, houses, clothes, pots and different articles.  A right-knower knows the true nature of the phenomena of the universe.