Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions


I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  III - The Ethic of Action



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          135.          The thought-activity of the perverse soul (is) full of wrong knowledge, by that it binds Karmas; while in the soul with right knowledge, (it) is full of right knowledge and therefore it does not bind Karmas.



          The author here chiefly refers to that bondage which is the cuse of an infinite cycle of mundane existences, and not merly to a mild bondage in a right-believer who must cast off all his karmas one de even if he will be going on binding them according to rules of bondage in spiritual teats. Thus a wrong-beeliever identifies himself with on-self modifications and maintaining his oul as angry, proud, deceitful, greedy and with other impure thought-activities binds strong Karmas; while a right-believer who is fully convinced of the true nature of soul, as quite equal to the status of a Liberated soul, and without any passions and vibrations, and who hhas found his goal of self-realization, does not bind such Karmas. He is really o the path to liberation and is gradually freeing him self from Karmic bondage.


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          136.          As thought-activity of right knowledge only proceeds from a substance with right knowledge, therefore in a right-knower all he thought-activities are of right-knowledge.



          All actions are cussed according to their primary cusses. All impurities of wrong belief and error-feeding passions have been cast away from the soul of a right-believer. Therefore all his conscious thought modifications must be right. Even a layman with right belief engaged in worldly occupation is never attacked by perverse thought-activity. All his actions are directed to right path. He does worldly actions under the operation of passions, but knows that they are not the actions of his soul.


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          137.          As from a substance with wrong knowledge, thought-activity of wrong knowledge only is produced; therefore in a perverse soul (all) the thought-activities (are) of wrong knowledge.




          A person, whose consciousness is dimmed by wrong belief and wrong knowledge, is subjected to modifications of his thought activity according to wrong belief and wrong knowledge. He cannot have right thoughts.


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          138-139.   As from a golden material, ear-rigs and similar thing are made, and room an iron matter only bracelets, et., (of iron) are produced. Similarly in the perverse soul, many kinds of thought-activities full of wrong knowledge are produced and in the soul with (right) knowledge, all the thought-activities are full of (rights) knowledge.



          All actions are dependent upon their primary causes. Articles made from gold cannot be other than gold, while those of iron cannot be transformed into any other matter than iron. Similarly all thought activities of a rights-believer are right, while those of a wrog-believer are wrong. Even austerities and good charitable actions and calmness of mind in a wrong believer are not in the right directions. His aim is not to get liberation from karmic bondage and to attain infinite bliss natural to the soul, but to acquire different objects of sense enjoyments, and worldly fame here or hereafter. In the same way, a layman with right belief amy perfomduties of a ruler, lead arms, earn moey by trade, engage in arts, agriculture and other industries, and yet his thought activities nnot be called wrong, because they are based upon right belief of his own true self an he knows that his layman duties are due to operation of passion and other Karmas which he knows to be his enemies. He must have just cause for all his worldly pursuits; therefore his all thought-forms are right.


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          140-141-142.          In souls, the belie in wrong principles (i.e., principles as they re not) (is due) to operation of wrong-belief (deluding karma) ; and vowlessness in souls (is due) to the operation of riht-onduct-deluding (Karma). And I souls, the wrong knowledge of the principles (is due) to population of knowledge-obscuring (Karma) ; and the passio-tossed thought-activity of the soul (is due) to the operation of passion (Karma). And the impales of activity of the soul, which (is) good an pursuable, or bad and abandonable, should be known to be due to rise of soul-vibrations (caused by operation of body-sub-class of body making Karma).



          Thought-ativities, which cause bondage of new Karmas, are not real and natural activities of souls. All the four kinds of activities of wrong belief wrong knowledge, vowlessness and soul-vibrations though motions of mind, body and speech are due to operation o material karmic bondage. Although souls are primary causes of conscious thought-activities, yet the darkness of wrong belief et., appearing in onsciouness is not due to primary cause of souls, but it is the effect or fruition. Strong or mild, of the Karmi molecules themselves. As has been explained in Gthas 116-119, this darkness of Karmas is really the cause of the eight kinds of fresh karmic bondage. From practical point of view only, it is said that primary cause of these impure activities is soul and a patio of Karmas is an auxiliary cause.