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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

INTRODUCTION

I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter  IV - Demerit and Merit � (Punya Papa)

 

 

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          158.          The soul absorbed in self-realisation is the real saint. He who is not so self-absorbed, but only follows the thirteen pointed external conduct of a saint, namely the observance of he five great vows, the 5 Smities, and the three Gupties, cannot be called a true sit. He may be called saint form the practical point of view. A wrong believer with all the external conduct of a saint an in no way be saint. His only in the first stage, that of wrong belief. The self-absorbed soul of he all-knowing Arhat is really the Omniscient and the perfect soul. His calm posture, his outward gloery, hi worship by celestials, etc., do not make him an Arhat. The Arhat is his own pure soul only. Those who are fully convinced of this, and try to realise their own soul-nature can be liberated, and not those who have got even a touch of attachment for the non-soul; merit or demerit.

 

 

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159.  He, who performs austerities and observes vows, without being absorbed (in his) highest Soul, (is) altogether (engaged in) childish austerities and childish vows (taken without right belief) So say the all-knowing.

 

Commentary.

          The external disciplines of observing the thirteen kinds of conduct, and of engaging in austerities, are merely the auxiliary causes to attainment of the stage of an Arhat.  If there is neither belief, nor knowledge, nor conduct, of self-absorption, all the austerities of saints and all their vows, are wrong austerities and wrong vows.  The observance of external conduct, in the letter of the scriptures, without right belief, is wrong conduct and cannot lead to liberation.  Such ascetics performing servre austerities and following the 13 pointed conduct ma reach to the 9 Graiveyaka and become Ahamindras, yet they are wrong-believers throughout.  Their mundane births and deaths shall not cease.

 

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          160.  Observing the vows and resolutions, and performing the subsidiary vows and austerities, the are unknowing, because they are away from (realization of) the highest, Soulpurity.

 

Commentary.

          Our knowledge becomes right knowledge when we realize the non-attached pure Self as the path of liberation.  Observance of external right conduct consisting of vows and austerities is an auxiliary cause for such self-realization.  Those who devotedly follow the outward conduct only, and do not care for the realization of the True and real self-nature, the will bind meritorious Karmas which will in a way delay and obstruct the attainment of liberation, instead of expediting and facilitating it.

 

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          161.  Those who are beyond (realization of) the highest soul, owing to wrong knowledge, long for meritorious deeds, which (are) the causes of mundane wanderings.  They do not know the Path of liberation.

 

Commentary.

          Persons with perverse knowledge wrongly taken the outward duties of saints, such as observation of complete vows and hard austerities, to be the path of liberation.  Really all conduct involving activities of body, mind and speech in concern with other objects are voluntarily done saints with good thoughts of noninjury, truth, chastity, etc.  They are not the pure thought-activity.  They are causes of bondage of meritorious Karmas.  Besides this, those thoughts do not represent even the thought-activity which must be found in saints in their lowest, vow., 6th and 7th stages, because the are not purified by right belief.  They being mixed with operation of wrong belief, cause bondage of Karmas, which a wrong believer in the first stage is to bind.  Their thought-paint is good; therefore, they bind meritorious Karmas with deep fruition-power and some demeritorious karma with mild fruition-power.  A saint practicing austerities for thousands of years without gaining true and real knowledge of self-realization can never be liberated; while a right-believing saint if he is fixed in self-absorption even for the period of an Antarmuhurta can become Omniscient Conqueror.  Therefore even attachment to merit must be given up.

 

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          162.  Belief in soul, etc., (9 categories) (is) right belief; the knowledge of them is right knowledge.  The giving up of attachment, etc., is right conduct. This certainly is the way to liberation.

 

Commentary.

          For the attainment of Liberation, it is essential that one should have a clear, firm, and unshakable belief in the nine-category, viz., Soul, non-soul merit demerit inflow bondage, checking, shedding and liberation (of Karmas) according to what has been preached by the Conquerors.  He should have a detailed and clear knowledge of these from study of Jain scriptures complied by great saints, and then should follow right conduct after renouncing love and hatred for all word objects including his own body.  This is the practical path.  To believe, and know and realize �that I am soul, quite pure and perfect,� and to be absorbed in this thought-activity is the threefold path from real point of view.  Thus he who understands this path of liberation from both points of view, correctly knows his soul and realizes it.  He never longs for good deeds for the sake of liberation.

 

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          163.  The learned do not indulge in the practical (path) giving up the real substance (i.e. the pure soul) Because (only) in the saints who depend upon the highest substance (i.e.pure soul), the destruction of Karmas taken place.

 

Commentary.

          Mere practical conduct without realization of the pure and real nature of the soul, cannot be the cause of liberation, so the learned do not neglect their own pure soul.  When there is non-attachment to all non-self and absorption in the own self, then that fire of concentration is kindled up which burns karmic matter and purifies the soul.

 

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          164,165&166.  As the white character of cloth is lost by being covered with a costing of dirt, so should the right belief (characteristic of the soul) be known (to be) obscured by the dirt of wrong belief.  As the white character of cloth is lost by being covered with a coating of dirt, so should right knowledge be known (as) obscured by the dirt of wrong knownledge.  As the white character of cloth is lost by being covered with a costing of dirt, so should certainly right conduct be known (as) obscured by the passions.

 

Commentary.

          Gathas 164 to 165 illustrate the condition of soul, which is brought about by operation of Karmas, bound before.  Cloth made up of cotton threads is really white in its natural colour but owing to its contact with mud, its whiteness is obscured, and it looks dirty.  But really the whiteness is not destroyed.  The dirtness has come over it as a mere coating only.  Similarly right belief, right knowledge and right conduct are the real and inseparable attributes of the soul.  Operation of wrong belief, knowledge obscuring and passion-karmas thas obscured them.  Removal of their operation will allow the threefold nature of the soul to illumine purely and rightly.