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Chapter 1

 

Chapter 2

 

Chapter 3

 

Chapter 4

 

Chapter 5

 

Chapter 6

 

Chapter 7

 

Chapter 8

 

Chapter 9

 

Chapter 10

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Acharya Uma Swami 

Chapter I

lE;Xn’kZu&Kku&pkfj=kf.k eks{kekxZ%AA 1AA

Samyagdarshana-gyana-charitrani- mokshamargah

_Right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct 

together consti-tute the path to liberation.

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Tattvarthashraddhanam- samyagdarshanam

_Belief in realities ascer-tained as they are is right faith.  

  rfUulxkZnf/kxek}kAA 3AA

Tannisargadadhigamadva

_This right faith is attained by intuition or by acquisition of knowledge.  

  thokthoklzo&cU/k&laoj&futZjk&eks{kk& Lr�oe~AA 4AA

Jivajivashrava-bandha-samvara-nirjara-mokshastattvam

_The living and the non- living substances, influx, bondage, stoppage, dissociation and liberation from karmas are the seven types of reality.  

  uke&LFkkiuk&nzO;&HkkorLrUU;kl%AA 5AA

Nama-sthapana-dravya-bhavatastannyasah

_The realities, right faith etc. are installed by name, representation, substance (poten-tiality) and current state.  

  izek.k&u;Sjf/kxe%AA 6AA

Pramana-nayairadhigamah

_Knowledge of the realities, right faith etc. is attained by means pramana (the complete knowledge) and naya (one aspect of the knowledge).

 

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 Nirdesha -svamitva- sadhana-dhikarana-sthiti-vidhanatah

_Knowledge is also attained by description, ownership, means, resting place (substratum), duration and division.  

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Satsankhya-kshetra-sparshana-kalantara-bhavalpa-bahutvaishcha

_Existence, number (enumeration), present abode, extent of space (pervasion), time, interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparision and also help in the attainment of knowledge.  

  efr&Jqrkof/k&eu%i;Z;&dsoykfu Kkue~AA 9AA

Mati-srutavadhi-manah paryaya-kevalani gyanam

_Knowledge is of five kinds_ sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience.  

  rRizek.ksAA 10AA

Tatpramane

_All of these five kinds of knowledge are pramana i.e.

 valid knowledge and are of two types.  

  vk|s ijks{ke~AA 11AA

Adye paroksham

_The first two kinds of knowledge are indirect knowledge (since these are attained through the sensory organs and the mind).  

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Pratyakshamanyat

_The remaining three know-ledges constitute direct

 knowledge (since these are attained by the soul itself).  

  efr% Le‘fr% laKk fpUrk�fHkfucks/k bR;uFkkZUrje~AA 13AA

Matih smrtih sangya chinta-abhinibodha ityanarthantaram  

_Sensory cognition, remem-berance, recognition, induction

and deduction are synonyms for sensory knowledge.  

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Tadindriyanindriya-nimittam

_Sensory knowledge is attained through five senses and the mind.  

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Avagrahehavayadharanah

_The four divisions of sensory knowledge are

 perception, curosity, judgement and retention.  

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Bahu-bahuvidha-kshipranih-srata(a)nukta-dhruvanam setaranam

_The subdivisions of each of these are many, many kinds, quick, hidden, unexpressed, lasting and their opposites.  

 

  vFkZL;AA 17AA

Arthasya

_These are the attributes of substances (objects)

 and known through sensory knowledge.

 

Vyanjanasyavagrahah

_Indistinct things are known only through perception sensory knowledge.  

  u p{kqjfufUnz;kH;ke~AA 19AA

Na chakshuranindriyabhyam

_Perception of indistinct things does not arise

 by means of the eyes and the mind.  

  Jqra efriwo� }�usd&}kn’kHksne~AA 20AA

Shrutam matipurvam dvyaneka-dvadasabhedam

_Scriptural knowledge is preceded by sensory knowledge 

and is of two kinds, twelve kinds, and many kinds.  

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Bhavapratyayo (a)vadhirdeva-narakanam

_Clairvoyance (avadhi) based on birth is possessed

 by celestial and infernal beings.  

{k;ksi’kefufe�k% “kM~fodYi% ‘ks”kk.kke~~ AA 22AA  

Kshayopashamanimittah shadvikalpah sheshanam

_Clairvoyance from destruc-tion-cum-subsidence of 

clairvoyance covering karmas is of six kinds. It is acquired 

by the rest (namely human beings and animals).  

_tq&foiqyerh eu%i;Z;%AA 23AA  

Rjuvipulamati manahparyayah

_Rjumati and vipulamati are the two kinds of telepathy (manah-paryaya).  

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Vishuddhyapratipatabhyam tadvisheshah

_Vipulamati is special as compared to Rjumati 

on account of higher purity and infallibility.  

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Vishuddhi-kshetra-swami-vishayebhyo(a)vadhi-manah paryayayoh

_Telepathy (manahparyaya) and clairvoyance (avadhi) differ with regard to purity, space, knower and objects. Telepathy is purer than clairvoyance, but clairvoyance extends to larger space. Those with telepathy maintain special restraint while clairvoyance can be had in all four conditions of existence.

 

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                     Mati-shrutayornibandho dravyesh- vasarvaparyayeshu

_The range of sensory knowledge and scriptural knowledge extends 

to all the six substances but not to all their modes (forms).  

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Rupishvavadheh

_The scope of clairvoy-anace is the substance

 which has a shape (the matter).  

  rnuUrHkkxs eu%i;Z;L;AA 28AA

Tadanantabhage manahparya-yasya  

_The scope of telepathy is the infinitesimal part of the

 matter, which is the subject of clairvoyance.  

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Sarvadravya-paryayeshu kevalasya  

_Omniscience (kevala gyan) extends to all substances 

and all their modes simultaneously.  

,dknhfu HkkT;kfu ;qxinsdfLeUuk& prqH;Z%AA 30AA  

Ekadini bhajyani yugapadek-asminnachaturbhyah

_A soul possesses minimum one and maximum four kinds of knowledge simultaneously. If soul possesses only one type of knowledge, it is omniscience, if two-these are-sensory and scriptural; if three-these are-sensory, scriptural and clairvoyance or telepathy; and if four-these are-sensory, scriptural, clairvoyance and telepathy.  

  efrJqrko/k;ks foi;Z;’pAA 31AA

Matishrutavadhayo viparya-yashcha

_Sensory knowledge, scrip-tural knowledge and clairvoyance

 can also be erroneous knowledge.  

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Sadasatoravishesha-dyadrachchhopala-bdherunmattavat

_Owing to lack of discri-mination between the real and the unreal, erroneous knowledge is whimsi-cal as that of a lunatic.  

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Naigama-sangraha-vyavahararju- sutra-shabda-

samabhiru-dhaivambhuta nayah

The figurative, the synthetic, the analytic, the

 straight, the verbalistic, the conventional and the

specific are the aspects of knowledge (naya).


Summary

ASPECTS OF REALITY

Path To Liberation

Rational (proper) perception, rational knowledge and rational
conduct together constitute the path to liberation. (1)

Rational Perception

Belief in reality (substances ascertained as they are) is

rational perception.

It is attained by intuition or by acquisition of knowledge.

Aspects Of Reality

Reality has seven aspects: (2)

1. Souls

2. Inanimate entities

3. Influx of karmic matter towards soul

4. Bondage of soul by karmic matter

5. Stoppage of influx of karmic matter towards soul

6. Shedding of karmic matter by soul

7. Liberation of soul from karmic matter

Reality is understood through experimentation (3) and logical thinking.

Understanding an entity or concept entails the consideration of its description, ownership, cause, place, duration and classification.

It also entails knowing its existence, number, extent, area, time, distinguishing features, quality and comparison.

Kinds Of Knowledge

Knowledge is of five kinds:

Sensory cognition

Literal knowledge (4)

Extraordinary knowledge (clairvoyance)

Mental knowledge (telepathy)

Absolute knowledge (omniscience)

Sensory cognition includes recollection, recognition, induction and deduction. It is acquired by the help of the senses and the mind.

Scriptural knowledge is preceded by sensory cognition.

The subject of extraordinary knowledge is matter, including embodied soul.

The subtlest forms of matter forms the subject of mental

knowledge.

All the entities of the universe, including their modifications, form the subject of absolute knowledge.

Sensory cognition, literal knowledge and extraordinary knowledge can be wrong knowledge.