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Chapter 9

 

Chapter 10

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Chapter 9

STOPPAGE AND SHEDDING OF KARMA

vklzofujks/k% laoj%AA 1AA

Asravanirodhah sanvarah

_The obstruction of influx is stoppage (sanvara)

   

l xqfIr&lfefr&/kekZuqizs{kk&ifj”kgt;& pkfj=S%AA 2AA

Sa gupti-samiti-dharmanupreksha-parishahajaya-charitraih

_Stoppage is effected by control, carefulness, virtue, meditation about self etc., conquest over afflictions by endurance and conduct.

   

rilk futZjk pAA 3AA

Tapasa nirjara cha

_Penance (austerity) results in stoppage and dissociation.

   

lE;X;ksxfuxzgks xqfIr%AA 4AA

Samyagyoganigraho guptih

_Stopping activity of the mind, speach and body without desire for material gains or fame is called control of mind, speach and body.

  bZ;kZ&Hkk”kS”k.kknkufu{ksiksRlxkZ%lfer;%AA 5AA

Iryabhashaishanadananikshepotsargah samitayah

_Iryasamity (to inspect ground in front while walking), Bhashasamity (to speak words which are beneficial, moderate, lovable, undoubtful, not to cause passions, not in conflict with the religion), Aishnasamity (to have pure food without any defects/short comings), Adan-Nikshepansamity (to carefully place, lite or handle everything) and Utsargasamity (to discharge stool, urin etc. at a lifeless place) are fivefold regulation of activities.

   

m�ke{kek&eknZoktZo&lR;&’kkSp&la;e&

 riLR;kxkfdapU;&cz�p;kZf.k /keZ%AA 6AA

Uttamakshama-mardavarjava-satya- shaucha-

sanyama-tapastyagakinchanya-brahmacharyani dharmah

_Supreme forbearance, modesty, straightforwardness, purity, truthfulness, self-restraint, austerity, renunciation, non-attach-ment and celibacy constitute virtue or duty.

   

vfuR;k’kj.k&lalkjS&dRokU;Rok’kqP;klzo& 

laoj&futZjk&yksd&cksf/knqyZHk&/keZ& 

Lok[;k% rRokuqfpUrueuqizs{kk%AA 7AA

Anityasharana-sansarai-katvanyatvashuchyashrava-

sainwara-nirjara-loka-bodhidurlabha-dharma-

svakhya-tattvanucintanamanupreksah

_Reflection is meditating on transitoriness, helplessness, trans-migration, loneliness, distinctness, impurity, influx, stoppage, dissocia-tion, the universe, rarity of enlighten-ment and the truth proclaimed by religion.

   

ekxkZP;ou&futZjkFk� ifj”kks<O;k% ijh”kgk%AA 8AA

Margachyavana-nirjarartham

 parisodhavyah parisahah

_The afflictions or hardships (22 types) are to be endured so as not to swerve from the path of stoppage of karmas and for the sake of dissociation of karmas.

   

{kqfRiiklk&’khrks”.k&na’ke’kd&ukXU;kjfr& L=h&p;kZ&fu”k|k&’k�;k�ks’k&o/k&;kpuk& �ykHk&jksx&r‘.kLi’kZ&ey&lRdkj&

iqjLdkj&izKkKkukn’kZukfuAA 9AA

Kshutpipasa-shitoshna-danshamashaka-

nagnyarati-stri-charya-nishadya-shayyakrosha-

vadha-yachana-(a)labha-roga-trnasparsha-mala-

satkara-puraskara-pragyagyanadarshanani

_Hunger, thirst, cold, heat, insect-bites, nakedness, absence of pleasures, women, pain arising from roaming, discomfort of postures, uncomfortable couch, scolding, injury, begging, lack of gain, illness, pain inflicted by blades of grass, dirt, reverence and honour (good as well as bad reception), arrogance of learning, despair or uneasiness arising from ignorance and lack of faith are the twenty-two afflictions or hardships.

 

lw{elkEijk;&Nn~eLFk&ohrjkx&;ks’prqnZ’kAA 10AA

Sukshmasamparaya-chhadmastha-vitaraga-yoshchaturdasha

_There are fourteen stages of transmigratory soul. Fourteen afflictions occur in the case of the saints in the tenth and twelth stages. These are hunger, thirst, cold, heat, insect bite, pain arising from roaming, uncomfortable couch, injury, lack of gain, illness, pain inflicted by blades of grass, dirt, arrogance of learning and despair or uneasiness arising from ignorance.

   

,dkn’k ftusAA 11AA

Ekadasha jine

_From the point of pleasant feeling producing karmas eleven affictions with the exception of lack of gain, arrogance of learning and despair or uneasiness arising from ignorance described in the previous sutra, occur to the Omniscient Jina. However, in the absence of deluding karmas, these afflictions are ineffective as far as Omniscient Jina is concerned.

   

cknjlkEijk;s losZAA 12AA

Badarasamparaye sarve

_All the affictions arise in the case of the ascetic with gross passions in sixth to nineth stage.

   

Kkukoj.ks izKkKkusAA 13AA

Gyanavarane pragyagyane

_Arrogance of learning and ignorance are caused by knowledge-covering karmas.

   

n’kZu&eksgkUrjk;;ksj&n’kZukykHkkSAA  14AA

Darshana-mohantarayayora-darshanalabhau

_Lack of faith and lack of gain are caused by faith-deluding and obstructive karmas.

   

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 ;kpuk&lRdkj&iqjLdkjk%AA 15AA

Charitramohe nagnyarati-stri-

nishadyakrosha-yachana-satkara-puraskarah

_The affiction of naked-ness, absence of pleasures, women, discomfort of postures, scolding, begging and reverence and honour are caused by conduct-deluding karmas.

   

osnuh;s ‘ks”kk%AA 16AA

Vedaniye sheshah

_The other afflictions are caused by feeling producing karmas.  

  ,dkn;ks HkkT;k ;qxinsd&fLeUuS& dksufoa’krs%AA 17AA

_A maximum of nineteen afflictions can occur simultaneously since one out of cold and heat and one out of pain arising from roaming, discomfort of postures and uncomfortable couch can occur at a time.

   

lkekf;dPNsnksiLFkkiuk&ifjgkjfo’kqf)& lw{e&lkaijk;&;Fkk[;krfefrpkfj=e~AA 18AA

Samayikachchhedopasthapana-pariharavishuddhi-

sukshma-samparaya-yathakhyatamiti charitram

_Equanimity, reinitiation in case of failure to keep the vow by taking to the vow again after penance, purity of non-injury, slight passion for greed and subsidence or dissociation of deluding karmas are the five kinds of conduct.

   

vu’kukoekSn;Z&o‘f�kifjla[;ku&jlifjR;kx& 

fofoDr’k�;klu&dk;Dys’kk ck�a ri%AA 19AA

Anashanavamaudarya-vrttiparisankhyana-rasaparityaga-

viviktashayyasana-kayaklesha bahyam tapah

_The external austerities are fasting, reduced diet, special restrictions while accepting food from a household, giving up stimulating and delicious dishes, lonely habitation and mortification of the body.

   izk;f’p�k&fou;&oS;ko‘�;&Lok/;k;& O;qRlxZ&/;kukU;q�kje~AA 20AA

Prayashchitta-vinaya-vaiyavrttya-svadhyaya-vyutsarga-dhyananyuttaram

_Expiation, reverence, service to ascetic, study, renunciation and meditation are the internal austerities.

   

uoprqnZ’kiap f}Hksnk ;Fkk�ea izkx~&/;kukr~AAA 21AA

Navachaturdashapanchadvibheda yathakramam pragdhyanat

_These are of nine, four ten, five and two kinds of expiation, reverence, service, study and renunciation respectively.

   

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ri’Nsn&ifjgkjksiLFkkiuk%AA 22A

Alochana-pratikramanatadubhaya-viveka-vyutsarga-

tapashchheda-pariharopasthapanah

_Confession, repentance, combination of confession and repentence, discretion, giving up attachment to the body, penance, suspension, expulsion and reinitia-tion are the nine types of expiation.

   

Kkun’kZu&pkfj=ksipkjk%AA 23AA

Gyanadarshana-charitropacharah

_Reverence to knowledge, faith, conduct and the custom of homage are the four kinds of reverence.

   

vkpk;ksZik/;k;&rifLo&’kS{k&Xyku&x.k&

 dqy&la?k&lk/kq&euksKkuke~AA 24AA

Acharyopadhyaya-tapasvi-shaiksha-glana-gana-

kula-sangha-sadhu-manogyanam

_Respectful service to the Head (acharya), the preceptor, the ascetic, the disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged saints, the congregation of disciples of a common teacher, the congregation of the four orders (of ascetic, nuns, laymen and laywomen), the long-standing ascetic and the ascetic of high reputation are the ten kinds of service.

   

okpuk&i‘PNukuqizs{kkEuk;&/keksZins’k%AA 25AA

Vachana-prchchhananuprekshamnaya-dharmopadeshah

_Teaching, questioning, reflection, recitation and preaching are the five types of study.

   

ck�kH;Urjksi/;ks%AA 26AA

Bahyabhyantaropadhyoh

_Giving up external and internal attachments are two types of renunications.

   

m�ke&laguuL;Sdkxz&fpUrkfujks/kks /;ku&ekUreqZgwrkZr~AA 27AA

Uttama-sanhananasyaikagra-chintanirodho dhyana-mantarmuhurtat

_Concentration of thought on one particular object is medi-tation. In the case of a person with the best physical structure or constitution it extends up to one muhurta.  

 

vk�kZ&jkSnz&/kE;Z&’kqDykfuAA 28AA

Arta-raudra-dharmya-shuklani

_The painful (sorrowful), the cruel, the virtuous (righteous) and the pure are the four types of meditation.

   

ijs eks{kgsrwAA 29AA

Pare mokshahetu

_The last two (the virtuous and the pure) are the causes of liberation.

   

vkrZeeuksKL; lEiz;ksxs rf}iz;ksxk; Le‘fr&leUokgkj%AA 30AA

Artamamanogyasya samprayoge tadviprayogaya smrti-samanvaharah

_Upon receipt of a harmful object, thinking again and again for its removal is the first kind of sorrowful meditation.

   

foijhra euksKL;AA 31AA

Viparitam manogyasya

_Upon loss of a favourable object, thinking again and again for its repossession is the second kind of sorrowful meditation.

   

osnuk;k’pAA 32AA

Vedanayashcha

_In the case of suffering from pain thinking continuously for its removal is the third type of sorrowful meditation.

   

funkua pAA 33AA

Nidanam cha

_Thinking about fulfilment of the wishes for enjoyment 

is the fourth sorrowful meditation.

   

rnfojrns’kfojr&ize�k&la;rkuke~AA  34AA

Tadaviratadeshavirata-pramatta-sanyatanam

_These sorrowful meditations occur in the case of laymen with and without small vows and non-vigilant ascetics.

   

fgalku‘r&Lrs;&fo”k;&laj{k.ksH;ks jkSnzefojr&ns’kfojr;ks%AA 35AA

Hinsanrta-steya-vishaya-sanrakshanebhyo raudramavirata-deshaviratayoh

_Cruel meditation relating to injury, untruth, stealing and safeguarding of possessions occurs in the case of laymen with and without partial vows.

   

vkKkik;&foikd&laLFkku&fop;k; /kE;Ze~AA 36AA

Agyapaya-vipaka-sansthana-vichayaya dharmyam

_The virtous meditation are of four types - concentration on realities (tattva) through pramana and naya, ways and means to help living beings to take the right belief, knowledge and conduct, fruition of karmas and the reasons thereof, and state of universe.

   

‘kqDys pk|s iwoZfon%AA 37AA

Shukle chadye purvavidah

_The first two types of pure meditation are attained by the saints well-versed in the purvas, the Shrutkevali.

   

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Pare kevalinah

_The last two types of pure meditation arise in the omniscients.

   

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izfrikfr& O;qijrf�;kfuorhZfuAA 39AA

Prthaktvaikatvavitarka-sukshma-kriya-

pratipati-vyuparatakriyanivartini

_The four types of pure concentration are that of many substances through the activity of mind, speach and body, that of one substance through the activity of mind, speach and body, that of subtle activity and that of complete destruction of activity.

   

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Tryekayogakayayogayoganam

_These four types of pure concentrations are achieved by those having all the three activities (the mind, the speach and the body), one activity, body activity and no activity respectively.

   

,dkJ;s lfordZohpjs iwosZAA 41AA

Ekashraye savitarkavichare purve

_The first two types are based on one substratum and are associated with scriptural knowle-dge and shifting.

   

vohpkja f}rh;e~AA 42AA

Avicharam dvitiyam

_The second type is free from shifting.

   

fordZ% Jqre~AA 43AA

Vitarkah shrutam

_Vitarka is scriptural knowledge through reasoning.

   

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Vicharo(a)rthavyanjanayoga-samkrantih

_Vichara is shifting with regard to objects, words and activities.

   

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Samyagdrshti-shravaka-viratananta-viyojaka-

darshanamoha-kshapakopashama-kopashantamoha-

kshapaka-kshinamohajinah kramasho (a)sankhyeyagunanirjarah

_The dissociation of karmas increases innumerable-fold from stage to stage in the ten stages of the right believer, the householder with partial vows, the ascetic with great vows, the separator of the passion leading to infinite births, the destroyer of faith-deluding karmas, the suppressor of conduct-deluding karmas, the saint with quiescent passions, the destroyer of delusion, the saint with destroyed delusion and the spiritual victor (Jina).

   

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Pulaka-bakusha-kushila-nirgrantha-snataka nirgranthah

_Pulakah (observes primary vows, but lapses sometimes), Bakusha (observes primary vows perfectly, but cares adornment of the body and implements), Kushila (observes primary vows perfectly, but lapses in secondary vows or has controlled all passions except the gleaming ones), Nirgrantha (will attain omniscience within Antarmuhurta) and Snataka (Omniscient-Kevali) are the passionless saints.

   

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 iikn&LFkkufodYir% lk/;k%AA 47AA

Sanyama-shruta-pratisevana-tirtha-linga-

leshyo-papada-sthanavikalpatah sadhyah

_The saints are to be described (differentiated) on the basis of differences in self-restraint, scriptural knowledge, transgression, the period of Tirthankara, the sign, the thought colouration, birth and the place.
 


STOPPAGE AND SHEDDING OF KARMA

 

Stoppage of karma is the absence of influx of karmic particles.

Stoppage of karma is caused by:

self restraint,

conscientiousness,

virtue,

contemplation,

endurance of suffering and

proper conduct.

Both, stoppage and shedding, of karma are caused by penance.

Self-restraint is rational curbing of the activities of body, speech and mind.


Conscientiousness constitutes proper care in:

walking,

speaking,

eating,

accepting and placing objects, and

disposing waste products.


The ten ultimate virtues are:

Forgiveness,

modesty,

sincerity,

purity of spirit,

truthfulness,

self-control,

conquest of desires,

renunciation,

nonpossessiveness and

enjoyment of the attributes of the pure soul.


The twelve contemplations are on the following:

Transient nature of life,

absence of other's help in spiritual uplift,

transmigration,

individuality,

distinctness,

impurity of worldly soul,

influx of karma,

stoppage of karma,

shedding of karma,

nature of universe,

difficulty in attaining enlightenment, and

teachings of religion.


Endurance of suffering is essential for the continuation of spiritual advancement and for shedding of karma.

Proper conduct includes equanimity, reinitiation, absolute nonviolence, freedom from subtle passions and passionless actions.


Penance:

External penance includes

total fasting,

partial fasting,

special restrictions in accepting food,

giving up delicacies,

sleeping in a lonely place and

mortification of body.

Internal penance includes

atonement,

reverence,

service,

study,

renunciation and

meditation.

Atonement entails self-criticism, repentance, both, refined judgement, renunciation, penance, suspension, expulsion and reinitiation.

Study includes teaching, questioning, contemplation, recitation and preaching.


Meditation

Meditation is concentration of thoughts on one particular object by a person with good physical constitution. It lasts for less than 48 minutes.

Meditation is of four kinds:

Sorrowful,

inclement,

righteous and

spiritual.

Righteous and spiritual meditations lead to salvation.

Concentration on removing disagreeable objects is sorrowful meditation.

Concentration on desires for agreeable objects is also sorrowful meditation.

Thinking of suffering from pain as well is sorrowful meditation.

Lastly, desires for worldly pleasures is sorrowful meditation.

Inclement meditation includes taking delight in violence, untruth and stealing, and making designs for preserving means of sensual pleasures.

Righteous meditation includes concentration on teachings of the omniscient, on the removal of delusion, on fruition of karma, and on the nature and constitution of the universe.

The four types of spiritual meditations are:

concentration on the attributes of soul that distinguish it from other entities,

concentration on just one aspect of soul,

concentration on the subtle activity of soul, and

total absorption of the soul in itself which is devoid of all activities.

The first two types of spiritual meditation are practiced by sages who are well-versed in the understanding of scriptures.

The third and fourth types of spiritual meditation are attained by the omniscients with and without yoga activity, respectively.