He, who has the desire to possess
delicate, soft implements to sweep away the small beings, practices the
lower type of restricted self-restraint. The same fact has been stated in
the holy books like 'Niyam Saar' and 'Pravachan Saar'. Only
the superb type of beings practice the two types of self-restraint - 'upaiksha
sanyam' (detached self- restraint) and aphrit sanyam
(restricted self-restraint). These are known as Non-attached
self-restraint (vitrag sanyam) - free from all passions; and
attached self-restraint (sarag sanyam) as well. Furthermore 'aphrit
sanyam' (restricted self-restraint) has been divided into two
1. Restraint on senses (Indriya
2. Restraint in conduct towards
animates beings (pranri sanyam).
Restraint on senses - To check the
five senses (sense of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.) and the
mind from indulging in sensuous pleasures is restraint on senses.
Restraint in conduct towards
animate beings - To safeguard the sthavara - one sensed souls viz.
earth, water, fire, wind and plants; and the trasa - many sensed
souls i.e., having bodies with more than one sense organ, is known as
restraint for animates.
The sense organs are five in
number. They are associated with five activities - sound, color, smell,
taste and touch. From time immemorial this living being by getting
indulged in these five-fold pleasant things, has forgotten the eternal
bliss. He has taken the sensuous pleasures as the real happiness.
Therefore, he has been undergoing the pangs of birth and death again and
again since long. A sieve may be filled with water, but the thirst for
sensuous pleasures can never be quenched. Even then the ignorant souls
spoil their worldly existence by indulging in these sensuous pleasures,
and ultimately meet their doom. It has been said:
"One must always guard one's soul
from all evils, by having all the sense organs properly controlled. In
case the soul is not well guarded, it takes to the wrong path leading to
birth and death; while if well-controlled, it becomes free from all
worldly sorrows and misery."
Aik pramadi sa kathamna haneytai
yasaivate panchbhiraiv panch
A deer, an elephant, a fire worm, a
black bee and a fish - all these five types of living beings lose their
lives by indulging in one sensed pleasure. Now the question arises - 'Will
not then a man who remains indulged forever in five sensed pleasures lose
his life likewise? He will certainly do so.'
An elephant due to its lust for
temporary pleasure of the sense of touch falls down into a deep pit
allured by an artificial female elephant.
A fish allured by bait is caught in
the hook of a fisherman's catching rod being overpowered by the sense of
taste and dies writhing and bearing untold agony.
A black bee is imprisoned amidst
the lotus petals at sunset on becoming a slave to the sense of smell and
loses its life.
A fire-worm (patanga) is
drawn to the flame of a burning candle or an electric bulb being
subservient to the sense of sight and meets its doom.
A deer becomes fully charmed by the
melody of the flute or rhythm of music inspired by the sense of hearing,
and is a victim to the arrow of the hunter.
Man is indulged in the sensuous
pleasures provided to him by all the five senses day and night; therefore,
he also cannot defend himself from the cruel clutches of death. The
sensuous pleasures look extremely charming; but the life of a living being
that is dependent on these transitory enjoyments is ultimately ruined.
Those, who are drenched in lust, and engrossed in sensual pleasures
blindly, will, for want of self-control be deluded. Therefore, the
scriptures give us a wise counsel: "The five senses and the four passions
- anger, pride, deception and greed, are all difficult to conquer; equally
difficult it is to conquer one's own self. But one, who has conquered his
self, has conquered everything else in the world."
In fact, the creeper, which takes
support of the poison tree, makes a man unconscious in spite of itself
being sweet in taste.
In 'Moolardhana' the two -
restraint on senses, restraint in conduct towards animate beings have been
Panchras panchvanr dogandhai
Manrsa chaudasjiva indriyapanra
ye sanjmo nraio
In this infinite universe with
unknown beginning a living being has suffered sorrow and misery times
without number mainly due to his tongue and the spell of the five senses.
Therefore, now it is high time to subdue all of them. Even if you fail to
put a check on the other sense organs, at least put reins to your tongue;
because an unbridled tongue causes great sorrow or when you give a long
rope to your tongue, you suffer the most.
Once a controversy arose between
the tongue and the teeth. The tongue boasted saying, "O teeth! Accept my
subordination; otherwise I shall vanquish you and bring all of you under
my control by waging a war against you." Being highly enraged at the
challenging words of the lone tongue all the thirty-two teeth spoke
unitedly, "First, you are very tender; and secondly you are lone. Can you
defeat us by fighting under these circumstances? It is quite impossible."
The tongue at once retorted, "Nay! Today I shall give you a tough fight
all alone." Ultimately a fight started between the tongue and teeth. The
tongue uttered a reproachful word to a pedestrian passing by. At this the
pedestrian struck such a blow of stick in the face of the ill-spoken
tongued person that all his teeth cracked and fell to the ground.
Therefore, if we put the tongue alone under restraint, all other senses
will remain safe. During conversation we should speak with utmost
restraint and care. It is good to be cautious while we speak. It is a
well-known saying - 'Think before you speak'.
The acharyas have compared
mind with an unharnessed horse; because for want of proper training in
self-restraint, an unbridled horse is killed in the battlefield along with
its master. The main reason of its death is lack of self-restraint.
Likewise, if we do not train the mind in self-restraint, it will lead us
to the dark well of sensual pleasures and drop us there. Then it will be
very difficult for us to come out of the well. Those who want to get rid
of this situation should constantly reflect on the twelve religious topics
(anuprakshain) to restrain their mind. They should remain engaged
in self-study and invariably keep away from the sensuous pleasures. Only
such persons will be capable of subduing the mind. To attain all these
things; viz., a humanitarian outlook, a noble birth, a prolonged life and
learning and listening to the Jain Tirthankara' divine voice
preserved in the sacred scriptures which preach the principles of Jainism
to all and sundry require diligence and self-restraint. Likewise, to
become adept in Right belief, Right knowledge and Right conduct is more
and more difficult for a living being of this universe. All these
achievements are impossible without self-restraint. In the absence of
self-restraint no living being can enter the kingdom of heaven or taste
the matchless fruits of salvation. Hence a human being must observe
self-restraint. Rightly has it been said: "A man may conquer thousands and
thousands of invincible foes, but that is of no real consequence. His
greatest victory is when he conquers only his own self."