Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Ten Universal Virtues

Munishri 108 Kam Kumar Nandi
Message, Foreword, Preface
Hymn To Five Divinties
  Paryushan Parva
  Supreme Forgiveness
  Supreme Tenderness or Humility
  Supreme Uprightness or Honesty
  Supreme Contentment or Purity
  Supreme Truthfulness
  Supreme Self-Restraint
  Supreme Austerities or Penance
  Supreme Renunciation
  Supreme Non-Attachment
  Supreme Chastity
  Kshamavani Parva




     The Abhyantara Tapa - six kinds of internal austerities are:

     Svadhiyeya shubhkarmnrshchyutvata samprtyavsthapanam

     Dhyanam vyapritiramyavini guro vridhay ch balai yato

     Kayotsarjan satkriya vinay itayvam tapa shadvidham

     Vandayabhayantarmantrangbalvadhidvaishi vidhvasnam

                      - Charitra bhakti

i) Svadhyaya - study of scriptures for getting rid of the ambition for name and fame, for 'Fame is the last infirmity of noble minds.'

ii)      Prayashchit - expiation or confession and repentance of sins;

iii) Dhyana - concentration of mind and not to let the mind go astray.

iv) Vaiyavrtyaya - rendering service to other saints, who have been rendered helpless due to sickness or old age.

v)      Vyutsarga - giving up attachment to the body; and,

vi) Vinya - reverence or modest behavior - to practice four types of humility in conduct.

     These external and internal penances form the code of conduct for the rigorous life of self-denial the ascetics have to lead.


     Again, penance is of two kinds;

1.      Tamasa-tapasaya (kutap) - dark penance.

     The dark penance involves the ghastly and terrible practices, as to sleep on the pointed iron nails, to walk on the burning fire, to get oneself suspended from a tree, to get oneself buried in the ground.


2.      Satvika-tapasya (sutap) - real or true penance.

     The true penance involves the genuine or natural ways of practicing penance. This real or true penance gives prominence to the practice of �Dhayana� (meditation) and 'Upavasa' (fasting). Dark penance is the cause of migration of soul in the universe. True penance results in the liberation of the soul. Penance is practiced for eternal bliss. It has been said:

     "Karmkshyarth tapayat iti tap"

                       Sarv sid.

     The penance performed to annihilate the karmic matter is the real penance. Without annihilation of the karmas, the final goal i.e., liberation cannot be attained. Therefore, penance is a must for a living being aspiring for salvation. It has been stated in 'Rajvartika'- 'karmdahnatapa': that which results in the burning or annihilation of the karmas is called penance. Acharya Padam Nandi in the holy book �Panchvinshati� has stated the same thing as follows:

     "Karmmlbilyahetobordhdrisha tapayatai tapa proktam"

     The penance performed by a monk endowed with the vision of Right Knowledge (samyakgyanddsss) to wash off the dirt of karmas from the soul, is called true penance. He who on subjugating five senses and four passions aroused by the abundance of semen is called penance. The author of the sacred book 'Dhawal' has also defined penance as followed:

     "Tinram ryanranrmavidhbhadthmichhanriroho"

     Suppression of desires to attain the three jewels - Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct - is called penance. To discard all desires at heart and become absorbed in the real self in order to conquer the karmas is known as penance. The word penance means to shun the sensual pleasures. Therefore, one who desires to perform penance will have to first overcome the lust for sensual pleasures; only then penance can be called successful. The abstention of ambition for legitimate and illegitimate, right and wrong sensuous pleasures in order to attain the three jewels, viz. Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct is termed penance. In Bhagwati Aradhana penance has been defined as strict observance of the rules of moral conduct:

     Chranrami tasmi jo ujamo ya aunjanra ya jo hoi

     So chaiv jinraihin tavo bhanrido asadam charantas

     The holy Lord Jinendra has declared the dedication to the moral code of conduct and the observance of these rules of morality in practical life penance.

     To suffer calmly without murmur, the good or bad results of karmas that have become effective and not to commit any type of violence towards any living being is the essence of penance. In the critical appreciation of 'Sarvartha Siddhi' it has been said:


     To mortify the body as much as possible according to the rules laid for the path of salvation without letting your spiritual power lie dormant is penance. A wise thinker has said, "The path of the brave is thorny; it involves mortification of the flesh'.

     The same thing has been stated in the Rajvartika as below:

     "Dehsyaindryanram ch tapam karoti ityanshanadi tap ichauchaytai"

     To keep fast and observe austerities by restraining man's tendency of indulging in the pleasures of the body and senses is penance. In Kartikeyanupreksha it has been said:

     Ih par loye suhanram nrirvaikho jo karaidi sam bhavo

     Viviham kaya kalaisham tavdhammo nrimaalo tas