Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Ten Universal Virtues

Munishri 108 Kam Kumar Nandi
Message, Foreword, Preface
Hymn To Five Divinties
  Paryushan Parva
  Supreme Forgiveness
  Supreme Tenderness or Humility
  Supreme Uprightness or Honesty
  Supreme Contentment or Purity
  Supreme Truthfulness
  Supreme Self-Restraint
  Supreme Austerities or Penance
  Supreme Renunciation
  Supreme Non-Attachment
  Supreme Chastity
  Kshamavani Parva

Message, Foreword, PREFACE



These ten virtues have been divided in two parts on the basis of �Paryaya-Naya� i.e., the model point of view, and �Dravya-Naya� i.e., the substantial point of view; or in spiritual terminology �Vyavahara-Naya� i.e., the practical point of view and �Nishchaya-Naya� i.e., the realistic point of view. The householders are ordained for partial observation and the ascetics for absolute observation of these virtues. From the above view points these ten virtues have been further classified into forty categories. The adjective �Supreme� has been used with these ten virtues with three viewpoints: 

(i) Forgiveness given with perfect faith is called supreme forgiveness.

(ii) Forgiveness given by an ascetic who observes the great vows is known as supreme forgiveness.

(iii) Ordinarily the virtue of forgiveness has been assigned the first place among virtues and is regarded superb in the world; from this viewpoint also forgiveness is the supreme virtue.

Pertaining to the use of the adjective �Supreme�, the sermon of Acharya Uma Swamy is also worth remembering:

�Utamkshmamardvarjvshochstyanymtpstyagaiknynybrhmyrari Dharma�

     (Tattvartha Sutra: Section IX, Sutra 6)

     There are other versions of ten virtues in Jain philosophy:

�Athahimsa kasha Satyam, shuchi shradhendryasanyam,

     Danmijaya tapodhyanam, dashakam dharmsadhnam�

     It means religion has ten ways and means:

1. Ahimsa - Non-violence

2. Kshma - Forgiveness

3. Satya - Truthfulness

4. Shuchitva - Purity

5. Shradha - Faith

6. Indriya Sanyam - Restraint on senses

7. Dana - Charity

8. Puja - Devotion or worship

9. Tapa - Penance

10. Dhayana - Meditation 

     �Sanyam sunritshoch, brahmakichanta Tapa,

     Kshanti mardvmrijuta, muktishch dashdha sa tu�

     It means, this religion which preaches universal well-being is of ten kinds:

1. Sanyam - Self-restraint

2. Satya - Truthfulnes 

3. Pavitrata - Purity

4. Brahmacarya - Chastity

5. Akinchanya - Non-attachment

6. Tapa - Penance

7. Shanty - Peace

8. Vineysheelta - Humility

9. Nishkapat Vyavhar - Deception-free conduct

10. Mukti - Liberation