Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Ten Universal Virtues

Munishri 108 Kam Kumar Nandi
Message, Foreword, Preface
Hymn To Five Divinties
  Paryushan Parva
  Supreme Forgiveness
  Supreme Tenderness or Humility
  Supreme Uprightness or Honesty
  Supreme Contentment or Purity
  Supreme Truthfulness
  Supreme Self-Restraint
  Supreme Austerities or Penance
  Supreme Renunciation
  Supreme Non-Attachment
  Supreme Chastity
  Kshamavani Parva




(Uttama Arjava Dharma)

    A renowned English poet writes about uprightness:


     A man of life upright

     Whose guiltless heart is free

     From all dishonest deeds,

     Or thoughts of vanity.

     The Hindi word 'Arjava' is a compound word framed by the addition of the suffix 'anr' with the root 'riju' i.e., riju + anr. The word Arjava means uprightness, straight- forwardness, simplicity, frank speaking, honesty, non- hypocrisy, large-heartedness and freedom from deceit.

     In 'Baras Anupekha' Acharya Shri Kundkund Swamy has defined the virtue of supreme uprightness or straight- forwardness (Uttama Arjava Dharma) as below:

     Motunr kudilabhavam, nrimlhidiyenr charrdi jo samnro

     ajvdhmam tyio, tas du sambhvdi nriymenr

     A Jain saint (Shraman Muni) acts in life with an unblemished heart discarding crooked feelings, and follows a definite moral code of conduct; as a rule he practices uprightness (Arjava Dharma) i.e., the third virtue out of the ten supreme virtues. 'Rijorbhav aarjvam'. Simplicity in ideas is known as straight-forwardness (Arjava). Its opposite is hypocrisy or crookedness. To give up hypocrisy is the supreme virtue of uprightness (Uttama Arjava Dharma). Hypocrisy is a hindrance in life journey. So long this obstacle lurks in a devotee, he cannot fully perform his devotion. If a devotee wants to carry on his life journey in a well planned, simple and unhindered manner, it is essential for him to give up hypocrisy or crookedness. Acharya Gun Bhadra has stated the same thing in �Atmanushashnam�;

     Bhayam mayamhagrtanmithyaghanatmomyat

     Yansmalina na lakshyante krodhadivishmahiya

     We should dread the pit of hypocrisy, which is covered with the dense gloom of crookedness or deceitfulness and inside which are concealed fierce snakes in the guise of the evil passions of anger, vanity and deceit. Generally, a deceitful person thinks that the harm caused by his deceitful conduct remains either unknown or unseen. He is mistaken to think so. Just as the moon concealed temporarily by clouds comes to light again and thrills the world with delight by dispelling heat with its pure and cool beams. Even if Rahu swallows it deceitfully, it still becomes visible to the people - it can never be fully concealed. The deceitful conduct that a man does may or may not come to limelight then and there, but it is sure to be exposed in the long run. A fine example of it is:

     Due to resembling a crow in shape, size and color, the bird cuckoo leaves her eggs in the nest of a crow. She does not hatch and safeguard her own eggs on account of herself being crooked and deceitful. When the eggs get fully hatched and young ones come out of them, they grow young and are recognized by their voice; soon after they themselves fly away from the crow's nest. Thus, as a result of deceitfulness a crow looks after the young ones of the cuckoo. Very often we see that deceitfulness is found in a great degree among the animals.

     The person who indulges in excessive deceitfulness is reborn in animal state of being (Trianch Gati). Its proof is available in the sixteenth couplet of the sixth chapter of 'Tatvartha Sutra' written by Acharya Uma Swamy: "maya teryagyonasye" - By practicing hypocrisy one gets birth in animal state of being i.e., 'Trianch Gati'.

     In 'Atmanushashan' Acharya Gun Bhadra Swamy has drawn a very fine picture of hypocrisy.

Yasho marichiyam kankamrigmayamlinitam, hatos hvthamoktya pranryilghurasidhmsut

Sakrishnr krishnrobhutkptbtuveshenr nitrampichhdyalpantdvishmmiv hi dugdhsya mahta.

     The glory of Mareech was rendered gloomy by his deceitful role of golden deer. Yudhister lost his high honor and fell to low esteem amidst his kith and kin by the utterance of his deceitful words, "Ashwathama hata" - Ashwathama has been killed. In Vamnavtar, Lord Krishna had to assume a dark complexion due to adopting the guise of a deceitful child; and as a result he suffered the black stain of defamation on his clean character. True it is, 'Even a little deceitful conduct proves fatal like milk mixed with poison."

     Most of the politicians indulge in deceit; for they believe that politics cannot be run without deceitful conduct. But it is a confirmed truth that religion cannot be practiced without giving up deceit. The two things are contradictory. Politics is the thing of the physical world. We can carry on life even without politics. But the boat of life cannot sail across the river from one bank to the other in the absence of religion.

     "Yogsyavkrta aarjvam" - S.Si. 9/412/6

     Not to be crooked or deceitful in mind, speech and body is straightforwardness (Arjava).

     A string becomes straight on pulling it by catching hold of its two ends. Likewise, the mind becomes straightforward by uprooting deceit from it, i.e., the simplicity of mind is known as straight-forwardness (Arjava). Gentle and virtuous persons are simple hearted; they neither nourish deceitful feelings, nor practice deceitfulness in their daily deeds. It has been said:

     Manasekam vachasekam karmnrekam mhatmanam

     Mansyanad vachsyant karmnrynyad duratmnam