Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Preface
Publisher's Note
Author’s Note
Mahavira: A Non-Violent Revolutionary
Transfer of Embryo
  Socio-political Conditions
  Vajji's Democracy
  Magadha and Srenika
  Ajatasatru Vajjis
  Princely following of Mahavira
  Social Conditions
  Intellectual Fervour
  Revolutionary push by Mahavira
  Significant Events
  Indra's Offer of Protection
  Five Resolves at Morak Hermitage
  Education Rather than Exposure
  Poisonous Fangs of Canda Kausika
  States of a Digambara
  Association with Gosala
  Candanabala : First Head of Women Disciples
  Final Act of Nirjara
  Attainment of Kaivalya
  First Ganadharas
  Muttanam-Moyaganam
  THE ULTIMATE REALITY
  ONTOLOGY OF ATMAN, THE SELF
  FACT OF THE MATTER
  JOURNEY TO FREEDOM
  ETHICS OF RESPONSIBILITY
  Actions follow the Doer
  Search for Responsibilty and Sramana Line
  Mahavira's Synthesis
  Psychological Approach of Mahavira
  Categories of Karmas
  Duration of Karmic Bondage
  Nature of Bondage
  Mitigation of Bondage
  Fresh Karmas
  Life's activities
  Even good actions bind, if motivated
  Consequences of Karma Theory
  MECHANICS OF CHANGE
  Process of Change and Nine Tattvas
  Essential Tendency of Jiva
  Papa' and ‘Punya' : Both of Binding Nature
  Asrava (Influx)
  Bandha (Bondage)
  Samvara
  Nirjara (Shedding of Accumulated Karmas)
  Moksa (Final Liberation)
  PLURALISTIC REALISM
  THEORY RELATIVITY
  MODUS OPERANDI
  Enlightened Consciousness
  Self, the starting point
  Will and Eagerness
  Upadana-Nimittan
  Bhavana or Anupreksa (Reflection)
  Twelve Vratas of House-holder
  Prayer
  Dhyana (Meditation)
  Lesya (Disposition)
  Code of Conduct for Monks - Modus Operandi
  Austerities (Tapascarya)
  Sanllekhana
  A PATH-WAY OF LIFE
  APPENDICES
  Appendix - A
  Appendix - B
  Appendix - C
  Appendix - D
  Appendix - E
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

MODUS OPERANDI

Justice T.U.Mehta

Code of Conduct for Monks

The whole moral code for a Jaina monk should be viewed from a particular angle. As monk has decided to devote himself absolutely spiritualism. The house-holders are allowed to observe the five cardinal principles of Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacarya and Aparigraha with concessions but the monks expected to observe them very strictly.

They are also expected to have complete control over their mind and body. This is done by cultivating control over mind, called �Manogupti' speech, called �Vaggupti' and action called �Kayagupti'. The guptis protect the monk from Sin. The Atman receives a shelter in these guptis against the mundane circle of birth and death. As Pujyapada has put it "Yatah samsarakaranadatmano gopanam bhavati". Manogupti means freedom from thought of passions, delusions, attachment, aversion and such other impure thoughts. Vaggupti means avoidance of talk's about women politics, theft, food, etc., and refraining from telling a lie. Kayagupti means renunciation of such violent actions as piercing, beating, contracting, expanding, etc. They are also expected to accept five types of �Samitis' (limitations). The word Samiti coming from the root (to go) with Sam prefix, means vigilance in behaviour, namely, Irya, to take care in walking so as not to hurt anybody; Bhasa, to take care in speaking so as not hurt anyone; �Esana', to take care in accepting alms so as to receive the same in accordance with the rules prescribed for monastic order; �Adana-niksepana' and �Utsarga' or Pratisthapana, both require care in taking and giving as well as in throwing away bodily refuse. The central idea of all these different types of limitations and restrictions is Ahimsa. One should not think, speak or do anything which even most remotely would involve the element of violence. The standards prescribed for monks are so much strict and rigid that to suit the modern age many adjustments are required to be made. For instance, as a rule, the Monks have to go on foot wherever they want to go. They therefore cannot use a vehicle. They also cannot use a microphone. If these limitations are rigidly followed, bulk of the society would be deprived of their contact and preaching. However, it should be remembered that these limitations are prescribed keeping in mind only one principle namely, each one of us is expected to concentrate upon his own individual emancipation and if we can, successfully do it social emancipation is bound to follow.