Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Publisher's Note

Something About Late Shri V.R. Gandhi
I - The Sankhya Philosophy
  II - The Yoga Philosophy
  III - The Naya Philosophy
  IV - Mimamsa
  V - The Vedanta Philosophy
  VI - Buddhism
  VII - Jainism
  Sanskrit Terms




Publisher's Note

Something About Late Shri V. R. Gandhi


Pt. Dr. Sukhalalji                                            






The Sankhya Philosophy                                    


1. Introductory                                             


2. An end of the threefold miseries aimed at (Comparison with Spinoza).


3. How a philosophical tenet like this originates (the Indian situation contrasted with the Western)


4. The threefold misery result forms the properties of prakriti while prakriti is eternal and co‑existent with purusa.


5. Kapila's is theory of evolution (i.e. a denial of something coming out of nothing) incidental refutation of the theory that the world is an illusory appearance


6. How is Prakriti a `mere name


7. Prakriti defined and the 25 elements (including purusa) enumerated; the course of prakriti's evolution traced


8. Proofs for the existence of soul and delineation of the nature of soul; incidental refutation of the `one soul' doctrine of Vedanta


9. Not real but only apparent bondage and emancipation of purusa


10. Theism rejected   


11. A critical remark on the Sankhya notion of the purpose of prakriti's evolution   


12. Some further details concerning prakriti's evolution   


13. The doctrine of a gross and a subtle body   


14. The means of moksa   


15. The nature of moksa   


16. The advocacy of the idea of nature working under fixed laws


17. The advocacy of the idea of `liberation of all'   


18. Three points of criticism by way of conclusion   



II The Yoga Philosophy                                   


1. Introductory; the mutual relationship between the physical, psychological, moral and spiritual planes (in Yoga and in the other systems of Indian philosophy)


2. The concept of mind (citta) introduced   


3. Various views as to the nature of mind enumerated and the Sankhya concept of sattvapatti, Moksa or kaivalya explained


4. Yoga Posits God over and above the Sankhya philosophy's 25 elements   


5. As contrasted to Sankhya yoga is highly practical in character   


6. Yoga understood as citta ‑vrtti ‑ nirodha   


7. The five types of citta ‑vrtti ‑nirodha   


8. Vairagya and abhyasa the means of citta


9. Incidental criticism of those denying the possibility of extra ‑sensory knowledge   


10. As a result of yoga soul controls the mind rather than vice versa   


11. The two types of samadhi and the eight stages that lead thereto   


12. (a) Five yams   

(b) Five Niyam   


13. (a) The results of five yams   

(b) The results of five Niyam   


14. Asanas   


15. Pranayam   


16. Pratyahara   


17. Dhahran   


18. Dhyana   


19. Samadhi   


20. The mutual relationship between Dhahran, Dhyana and Samadhi (collectively called Samyama)   


21. The mutual relationship between the five yogabahirangas, the three yogaAntaranga and the final samadhi   


22. The precise nature of the cittaprename occurring during the stage of final samadhi   


23. The general concepts of DharmaParinaama, laksanaParinaama and avasthaParinaama   


24. The result of the Samyama with the three fold Parinaama for its object   


25. The result of the Samyama with word etc. for its object


26. The result of the Samyama with mental impressions for its object   


27. The result of the Samyama with sign etc. for its object


28. The result of the Samyama with the form of one's body for its object   


29. The result of the Samyama with Karma for its object   


30. The result of the Samyama with maitri, karana, upeksa for its object   


31. The result of the Samyama with the elephant, the Satvaparkas, the sun, the moon, the polar star for its object   


32. The result of the Samyama with the bodily parts (i.e. Nabhicakra etc.) for its object   


33. The result of the Samyama with purusa for its object   


34. The result of the Samyama with pranas (i.e. udana etc.) for its object   


35. The result of the Samyama with the ether ear relationship and the ether‑body relationship for its object   


36. Non‑attachment to the above miraculous powers is the ideal


37. How the yogin assumes different bodies (incidentally, how a being's act yield result)   


38. How the yogin attains kaivalya   



III The Naya philosophy                                                       


1. Introductory; the precise relationship between the Naya and Vaisesika   


2. The Naya notion of uddesa, laksana and pariksa   


3. The sixteen Naya topics explained   


4. Transition to the Vaisesika   


5. The seven Vaisesika Categories enumerated   


6. The seven Vaisesika Categories further elaborated:


7. The Vaisesika Categories further elaborated:

(a) The Dravyas that are both eternal and non‑eternal   

(b) The Dravyas that are eternal   



IV Mimamsa                                           


1.To be neglected inasmuch as it is not system of philosophy but rather a system of ritualism   



V Vedanta Philosophy                            


1. The Upanisadic basis of the Vedanta philosophy laid bare with the help of the UddalakaSvetaketu dialogue of the Chhandogya Upanisad   


2. The mutual relationship between Mimamsa and Vedanta   


3. A summary account of Sankara's version of Vedanta:   

(a) The nature of Brahma, Maya and Jagat (both Jan. and Chaitan)  (b) The nature of bondage   

(c) The nature of moksa   


4. A summary account of Ramanuj's version of Vedanta:

(a) The nature of Brahma and Jagat (both Jan. and Chaitana)

(b) The nature of bondage and moksa   


5. Sankara and Ramanuja compared and contrasted   


6. Further elaboration of Sankara's view:

(a) Sankar on Brahma's causality of the world   

(b) The gradual development of Sankara's philosophy out of the old Upanisads   

(c) Brahma and Brahma   

(d) For Sankara the jiva is Brahma (not Brahma) and it is Brahma (not becomes Brahma)   

(e) Sankara's view contrasted with that of Yoga   

(f) Sankara explains away‑and with ease the Upanisadic passage where they speak as if the jiva and Jagat too are independent realities (like Brahma)   

(g) Vedanta‑lie all idealism‑goes against commonsense   

(h) Vedanta accepts the idea of God and of His worship‑from a practical stand‑ point   

(i) The knowledge had from the practical standpoint is supplanted by that had from the ultimate standpoint.   

(j) Only Sata, Chaitan and Ananda can be attributed to the highest Brahma (that can be known only as subject but never as an object)   

(k) But the creation of the world on the part of Brahma, an individual's individuality, the worship of Brahma on the part of individual are all `practical truths not falsehoods   

(l) Various analogies to explain Brahma's causality of the world ultimately replaced by Sankara's doctrine of vivarta

(m) Brahma's causality of the world is case of Avidya (i.e. a case of appearance caused by ignorance)   

(n) Bharatitratha on the mechanism of removing Avidya   



VI Buddhism                                             


1. Introductory; the Indian scene as Buddha found it   


2.Some biographical details relating to Buddha        


3. The doctrine of Buddha                               

(a) Northern Buddhism   

(b) Southern Buddhism   

(c) The three Pitakas of Southern Buddhism   

(d‑e) The four `noble truths':   

(d) The first `noble truth': (incidental account of five skandhas and a refutation of the doctrine of soul)   

(e) The second, third and fourth `noble truths'   

(f) Recapitulation of the Buddhist system of morality under seven heads   

(g) Nirvana‑ the ultimate result of `Self‑culture'   

(h) Buddha's agnosticism as to what happens after death to him who has attained nirvana   

(i) Buddha's acceptance of the `doctrine of Karma' by way of explaining as to what happens after death to him who has not attained nirvana   

(j) Buddha on Brahmanical gods   

(k) Buddha on Case‑system   

(l) Buddha on Vedic ritualism   

(m) Buddha on philosophical discussion (and the rise of a Buddhist philosophy)   

(n) The early form of Buddhist worship   

(o) The history of Buddhism after Buddha   



VII Jainism                                         


1. The poser of four questions that are basic to all investigation into a philosophical system   


2. Jainism on the nature of universe   


3. Jainism on the nature of God   


4. (a) Jainism on the nature of soul   

(b) Jainism on the destiny of soul   


5. Jainism on the doctrine of Karma   




SS ‑ Sankhya Sutras

SK ‑ Sankhya Karika

Ani. ‑ Aniruddha's Commentary on SS

Vijn. ‑ Vijnanabhiksu's Commentary on SS

YS ‑ Yoga Sutras

Vy. ‑ Vyas's commentary on YS

HP‑ Hathayogapradipika

NS‑ Naya Sutras

VS ‑ Vedanta Sutras