Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Publisher's Note

Something About Late Shri V.R. Gandhi
I - The Sankhya Philosophy
  II - The Yoga Philosophy
  III - The Naya Philosophy
  IV - Mimamsa
  V - The Vedanta Philosophy
  VI - Buddhism
  VII - Jainism
  Sanskrit Terms

I - The Sankhya Philosophy



16.  There is another point to which I should like to draw your attention. The Sankhya philosophy in a large measure supports the nature working under fixed laws without any interference on the part of an extra‑cosmic being.


17. But of all his theories, one that has struck me to be the most liberal is the universal salvation theory. He does not restrict the liberation only to the few followers of his philosophy but to others also.71


18.  So far we have tried to understand the meaning of Kapila's theory. Let us now see if it is consistent and appeals to our reason. In the first place, he says that Prakriti was in the beginning in a state of equilibrium. The three qualities, passivity, activity and grossness, were balanced. What then caused a disturbance in this state of equilibrium?  Without external‑causes, Prakriti cannot be disturbed. Pursha the soul is action-less, changeless, without any qualities or attributes.


Secondly, the Great Mind and self‑consciousness are considered by Kapila to be different form each other. According to him one is the product of the other. And both of them are the outcome of Prakriti, which is really material. Now the Great Mind or Buddhi or intellect is nothing but a phase of consciousness. Self‑consciousness‑'I am happy ','I am unhappy'‑ is only a particular instance illustrating that phase and both of them imply knowledge and are but the characters of the soul but can never be the products of primordial material essence.


With regard to subtle elements Kapila says that gross elements are produced from these subtle elements; e.g., from odor comes out earth, from taste water, from color fire, from touch wind and from sound ether. If he means that the gross elements, which we see outside the human or any other gross organic body, are the products of these subtle elements, there is no reason to support it. The external elements we see are as eternal as anything else.




1.  SS 1.1; SK 1


2. Since Purush (i.e. Soul) is here conceived in the from of pure consciousness (rather than a conscious substance) all properties whether physical or mental are somehow or other traced to Prakriti (i.e. matter). But how mental properties‑the threefold miseries, for example‑can characterize matter is one of the obscurest point of the system.


3. Here is the Sankhya doctrine that it is only in the eyes of un unenlightened soul that Prakriti assumes the form of the world of day‑to‑day experience (while an enlightened soul views Prakriti in its pristine form).


4. SS 1.78

5. Ani. 1.78

6. SS 1.79

7. Ani. 11.79

8. Ibid

9. SS 1.114; SK 9

10. SS 1.115

11. SS 1.116

12. SS 1.117


13. Gandhi has himself earlier talked as it Prakriti is identical with mater, but now that he notes that Prakriti produces even consciousness he finds difficulty in accepting that position.


14. SS1.68. The Sankhya philosopher's idea seems to be that the physical world must have a root (or we must be faced with an infinite regress) but that it is immaterial whether this cause is given the name `Prakriti' or any other, However, in view of the basic obscurity of the Sankhya position on the question there is also sense in the way Gandhi interprets the present Sankhya aphorism.

15. SS 1.61

16. SS 1.61 SK 22

17. Ani. 1.61

18. Ibid

19. Ibid

20. SS 1.140; SK17

21. SS 1.141

22. SS 1.142

23. SS 1.143

24. SS 1.145

25. SS 1.146

26. SS 1.148

27. SS 1.149; SK 18; Gandhi's sentence needs some correction of the type here suggested.

28. Ani. 1.149

29. SS 1.154

30. SS 1.157

31. SS 1.162; SK 62

32. SS 1.92

33. SS 2.1; SK 56; That soul is really though not apparently emancipated means that it is really emancipated but appears to be not so. Gandhi's interpretation of the phrase Svarth seems to be somewhat far‑fetched, but he is apparently following some commentator. The more natural interpretation of the phrase should be: "Or we may say that Prakriti created the universe for the sake of itself, that is, for the sake of the removal of pain that really belongs to itself." As we have noted, in the Sankhya philosopher's eyes pain is a phenomenon belonging to Prakriti rather than to Purush.


34.  SS 2.13‑15; Vijn.2.13‑15; SK 23; Both Aniruddha and SK maintain that demerit etc. arise out of Prakriti when there is in it a preponderance of Tames (rather than of Rajas and Tames).


35. In Sankhya philosophy Ant Karen is the name usually given to the collection of Manas, Ahamkar and Buddhi alone‑but seldom to ahankara. See Aniruddha on SS 2.38 (also SK 33) for the triple composition of Anskaran and SS 2.38 1.64 for the identification of Antakaran with Buddhi.

36. SS 2.17- 18; SK 24-25

37. SS 2.20

38. SS 2.22

39. SS 2.27; Vijn. 2.27

40. SS 2.29; Vijn. 2.39

41. SS 2.30; Vijn. 2.30

42. SS 2.31

43. SS 2.33; Ani. 2.33

44. SS 2.34

45. YS 1.2

46. SS 3.2; Vijn. 3.2

47. SS 3.3

48. SS 3.4

49. SS 3.7; SK39

50. SS 3.8

51. SS 3.9; In fact, Ahamkar is the eighteenth constituent‑element of the subtle body but as Vijnanabhikshu says it is here treated as included in Buddhi. Aniruddha, on the other hand, interprets the aphorism itself to mean that the subtle body is made up on eighteen elements.

52. SS 3.10

53. SS 3.12; SK 41

54. SS 3.13; Vijn. 3.13

55. SS 3.17

56. SS 3.23

57. SS 3.24

58. SS 3.25

59. SS 3.30

60. SS 3.31

61. SS 3.32

62. SS 3.33

63. SS 3.34

64. SS 3.35

65. SS 3.36

66. SS 3.37

67. SS 3.38‑45; SK 45‑51

68. SS 5.2‑12;SK 57

69. SS 3.54

70. SS 3.63

71. It has not been possible to trace the original text that forms the basis of Gandhi's present contention