Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Publisher's Note

Something About Late Shri V.R. Gandhi
I - The Sankhya Philosophy
  II - The Yoga Philosophy
  III - The Naya Philosophy
  IV - Mimamsa
  V - The Vedanta Philosophy
  VI - Buddhism
  VII - Jainism
  Sanskrit Terms

II - The Yoga Philosophy



While such knowledge arises and supreme non‑attachment is at highest there arises in the yogi entire cessation of the effects of three Gun., the properties. The properties work for the Purush; the Purush having known himself the properties cease to act, they having fulfilled their end.89 The whole universe is but a succession of transformation upon transformation of properties.90 These transformations take an inverse source till all is reduced to matter with the three qualities. No fresh transformations comes take place and hence the succession of transformation comes to an end on the case of the Purush who has understood Kaivalya.91 Their effects the various transformation merge onto the higher source and nothing remains for the Purush to cognize. This state of the Purush is Kaivalya or the state of singleness. It dose not mean that the universe is reduced to nothing, for it continues to exist for all those who have not acquired knowledge. In the case of one who has not acquired knowledge, the visible universe, the cause of distraction, the state of concentration, the supreme idea of non‑attachment, all with their impression merge into the mind, which again merges into mere being, which resolves itself in Mahat, which finally loses itself in Prakriti. This Kaivalya of Prakriti is by way of metaphor said to be of Purush. Or Kaivalya may be explained from the side of the Purush. When the Purush has so far received due illumination as to estrange itself from all relation with Prakriti and its transformations it is said to be Kaivalya (Kaival) alone or in a state of Kaivalya. This is the power of soul centered in itself. Kaivalya is not any state of negation or annihilation as some are misled to think. The soul in Kaivalya has his sphere of action transferred to a higher plane limited by a limitless horizon. This, our limited minds cannot hope to understand.




1. As a matter of fact, the Sankhya school‑ at least what is known as 'Classical Sankhya'‑is only partly materialistic.


2. The exact import of the statement that the mind is a result of Rajas is somewhat obscure; but if 'mind' here stands for Buddhi and Satv for the Satvgun, then Gandhi is perhaps saying that in Buddhi there is a greater preponderance of Rajas than it is there in the original Prakriti.


3. It is not clear what is precisely meant by saying that mind has special attributes. Maybe it simply means that mind has a specific nature of its own, but that is hardly worth saying.


4. YS 3.55


5. YS 1.2


6. Note how Gandhi concedes the possibility of a practicing yogi acquiring miraculous capacities but at the same time under‑emphasizes this aspect of the matter.


7. In view of the standard enumeration of elements adopted by the Sankhya Yoga system Chit should not be an element over and above Manas and Ahamkar, and Buddhi, which three are collectively called Antakaran. At places, Buddhi alone is called Antakaran and as a matter of fact the usual practice is to identify Chit with Buddhi; as Vachaspati in the Tattvavaisharadi on YS1.1 says: Chitashbdain Antakaran. Budhdhimupakshyati.


8. YS1.3


9. YS1.4


10. YS 1.6‑11


11. YS 1.12



12. YS 1.17‑18.


13. YS 2.29.


14. YS 2.30.


15. YS 2.32


16. YS 2.35


17. YS 2.36


18. YS 2.37


19. YS 2.38; One word in Gandhi's Sentence is illegible (it reads like `actute').


20. YS 2.39


21. YS 2.41


22. YS 2.42


23. YS 2.43


24. YS 2.44


25. YS 2.45


26. YS 2.46


27. HP 1.57‑65; Here again one word is illegible (it reads like 'whicy').


28. YS 2.49; Vy.2.49


29. Sushumn.a is spinal cord and it is a sign of balanced breathing that the Pran. runs in the middle course represented by Sushumn.a. Unmanee is the word, which in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika stands for the highest type of Smadhi i.e. for Nirviklpaksmadhiv. But it is not easy to see why Gandhi here uses the word unman,mudra instead of  the simple unman.i.


30. HP 2.1-20