Sub-Categories under the
category : Junior Level
GOING TO THE TEMPLE
Ketan asked Ravi, "What do you do in the
temple?" Ravi said, "I worship Jina and do prayer and recite Rosary. It
will be interesting for you to go, too. Nobody should feel shy about going
to the temple. After all, it is our worshipping place". Ketan asked, "If
there is any particular procedure to follow while in the temple?" Ravi
said, "People do different things in different way and I will explain
Dashtrik (ten essential things) which should be done by everybody."
When we go to temple, we wear simple or
special clothes just for the temple. We do not wear silk or leather
articles. We take a bath before going to temple, and if not, then at least
be in a clean condition. As we get close to the temple, and if we could
see the idols of Jinas from outside, then say "Namo Jinanam" while placing
folded hands over slightly bent forehead which means "I salute Jina".
Before entering the temple, we take off shoes. After this, we do the ten
different things in a given sequence and each of these ten things has
three different ways of doing them. Therefore, some people call them "Dashtrik".
These ten things are:
Pradakshina (circumambulation - going
around the Jina’s idol)
Avasthachintan (contemplation upon the
various states of the Lord)
Dishatyag (do not look here and there,
but look only at the Jina’s idol)
Pramarjan (cleaning the ground before
Mudras (postures for meditation)
Pranidhan (be absorbed)
Nissihi means renunciation (give up). It is said three times in the
temple. The first "Nissihi" is said while entering the temple to discard
all the thoughts relating to worldly affairs (Samsar). The second "Nissihi"
is said while entering the actual area of the Jina idol (gabharo) to
discard thinking of such things as the cleaning of the temple and its
management. The third "Nissihi" is said right after finishing the
worship with physical substances (dravyapuja) and at the beginning of
psychic worshipping (Chaityavandan).
We keep the holy substances always on our right side. Therefore, we
circumambulate (go around) Jina idols three times keeping them on our
right side, that is from our left to the right. While going around, we
remind ourselves that Arihants are precious, that they are our mentor,
and that one day we will be like them. This contemplation of the
Arihants would help us overcome attachment and hatred. Three
circumambulations should also remind us that there are three remedies to
overcome attachment and hatred; they are right jnan (gnan), right
darshan, and right charitra. Therefore, we should also contemplate how
to acquire them. Some feel as if they are going around Samavasaran
We salute the idols of Arihants three times. 1) The first
salutation is offered at the time of first seeing the idols of Arihants
(usually at the time of entering temple) with placing the folded hands
over slightly bent forehead and saying Namo Jinanam. 2) The second
salutation is done with folded hands and bowed body as we enter the
gabharo. 3) The third salutation is done while performing the glorifying
prayers (Chaityavandan - psychic worshipping) while touching the ground
with five limbs (2 knees. 2 hands and the forehead) bent down. This is
There are three kinds of worships offered: 1) The first
worship is called Angapuja. This is done by touching the different parts
of an idol of Arihant with water or milk, sandal wood paste and saffron,
and a flower. 2) The second worship is called Agrapuja, which is done by
placing incense, lamp, rice, fruit and sweets in front of idols. First
and second worships together make the worship by eight kinds,
Ashtprakari puja. These two are called physical worship. 3) The third
worship is called Psychic (Bhava-puja) which is done by chanting
glorifying prayers (Chaityavandan).
Avasthachintan (Contemplating on
the different states of Arihants): After
completing the physical worship, one must carry out this contemplation.
The male person should stand on the right side of idol of Arihant (that
is the left side if facing the idol) while the woman should stand on
left side of it (that is the right side if facing the idol). Standing
this way, we should contemplate on the three different states which
Arihants went through. They are 1) Pindastha avastha, 2) Padastha
avastha, and 3) Aroopastha avastha.In Pindastha avastha we contemplate
on his a) Janmavastha, b) Rajyavastha, and c) Shramanavastha.
Janmavastha: Oh Lord, during your third
last life, you observed any of twenty factors to acquire Tirthankar Nam
Karma like psychic compassion towards all living beings, etc. When you
were born to be a Tirthankar, all of 56 goddesses of directions and 64
Indras performed oblation to you. How great you were that even at such
occasion, you did not feel proud of what was happening around. Your
loftiness is blessed.
Rajyavastha: Oh Lord, you had the status
of a Prince. You had the princely power and grandeur, and yet you were
neither attached to them nor felt hatred about them. You were like a Yogi
who is detached. Glory to your self-abnegation (renunciation).
Shramanvastha: Oh heroic Lord, you
renounced the worldly power and luxury without any hesitation, became a
monk or nun (sadhu or sadhvi). You carried out heroic endeavors for the
attainment of spiritual elevation, bearing the most bitter obstacles and
calamities. At times, you carried out incomparable and arduous spiritual
austerities and penance. You stood for days absorbed in deep meditation.
By doing so, you destroyed all the terrible ghati karmas. Glory to your
austerity. Glory to your bravery. Glory to your tolerance.
Padastha Avastha: In this, we
contemplate the state of his life as a Tirthankar. As Tirthankar Arihant,
you acquired the 34 super specialities (atishay) and offered us spiritual
sermons on Tattvas filled with 35 virtues of the speech. You then
established the four-fold Jain sangh, tirtha, and Jain Shasan.
You explained the noble doctrines of
Jiva tattva and Ajiva tattva of the universe. You showed the path of
salvation comprised of the right faith, right knowledge, and right
character. You expounded the immortal philosophical doctrines like
Anekantvad , Syadvad, and Naya, etc.
Aroopastha Avastha: In this, we
contemplate on the pure form of Jina. O, Paramatma (supreme being)! You
have destroyed totally all your Karmas, and you have become bodiless,
formless, pure, awakened, liberated, and perfect. Having attained this
state, you are absorbed in infinite knowledge and indescribable bliss. You
embody countless virtues. Your state is absolutely free from stains,
distortion, and agitation. In this state, death, disease, distress, or
poverty, and all such adversities do not exist. O Lord, thou art blessed !
Dishatyag (Do not see here and
there but see only the Jina’s idol): Now we
perform the Psychic (bhav) worshipping known as Chaityavandan. This
should not be impaired by anything. We start the Chaityavandan in our
mind and it should not be shaken even to the slightest extent. Our eyes
and mind must be fixed on the idol and we shall not look around, until
it is over.
Pramarjan (Cleaning the ground
before sitting down): Before sitting we should
clean the ground three times with our upper cloth, so that no small
insect may be hurt by sitting there.
Having sat down, we must keep three supports in our mind:
l) The image of the Lord, 2) The sutras we utter, and 3) their meaning.
Our mind should be concentrated on these three things.
Among the eight steps of meditation, the right posture is
the third step. The right posture is very much necessary to attain the
sublime concentration during Chaityavandan.
Mudra: During chaityavandan and the recital of the sutras, we must sit
straight with both palms together and the fingers of one hand in the
spaces between the fingers of the other hand, and the elbows to the
sides of our stomach.
Muktashukti Mudra: We must keep our
hands in the posture of an oyster shell, with both hands together so
that there is a space between the two palms where the fingers meet. This
posture is used at the time of recitation of the sutras "Javanthi Cheyi
Ayam", "Javantkevi Sahu", and "Jai Viyaraya" sutras.
Jin Mudra: At the time of Kayotsarg,
we stand up in such a way that there is a distance of 4 inches between
the two feet at the toes in the front while the heels almost touch each
other. Our hands should be hanging down. Our eyes should be fixed on the
tip of our nose. Jina stood in Kayotsagga with this posture.
Pranidhan (be absorbed):
We should concentrate our senses, our body, our voice, and our mind on
carrying out Chaityavandan and we should not let them wander.
The precautions to be taken in respect
of pooja or worship:
We must respect the idols of Arihants
as Jina in reality. In case, the idol of Arihant has to be carried from
one place to another; it should be carried in reverence holding straight
with the support of the both hands beneath it.
At the time of worshipping Arihants
with substances, you may bring the necessary substances from your house.
The flowers selected should have
naturally fallen down, and should not be plucked for this purpose. The
buds of the flowers should not be removed. When making a garland of the
flowers, a needle should not be used for stringing them together and
they should not be washed.
While using a brush to clear the
things stuck to the idols of the Jinas, it should not make even the
slightest noise. We may clean with a wet thick cloth to remove the
saffron etc. Do not rub the idols roughly.
The flowers, the decorations, and the
smearings which are used for various parts of the idols of the Arihants
should not be allowed to fall to the ground. In case they do fall down,
they should not be used again and they should be kept in a clean plate.
In case, we have to rub the saffron (Keshar)
we must close our mouth, and when we finish we should wash our hands and
You must recite the hymns and sutras
relating to the Chaityavandan in such a way, that we do not disturb the
concentration and devotion of others.
While reciting Chaityavandan, we
should not engage in any other activities, including forming the
When we get out of the temple, we
should not turn our back towards the idols of Arihants. Rather, we
shouls walk backwards few steps first and then turn sideways.
(Members of some Jain sects do no
worship in temple.)