The instincts play a significant role in our
life. They affect our conduct as well as the behavior. They have been
illustrated in Jain canons from the karmic philosophical point of view. One of
the modern disciplines of science is psychology of behavior which emphasizes the
original instinct in the form of natural tendencies and modes of living, and
emotions, feelings. It colloborates the karmic explanations.
What is an instinct?
First of all, we should understand the concept
of an instinct. There are two meanings. One is an emotion which is called an
original instinct in the psychological term and the other is consciousness.
Whatever we do, it is influenced by the impelling force of these special types
of emotions. In the other words instict (Samjna) means particular type of
tendency of consciousness in which conscious and subconscious minds are combined
together. They are called emotions. Internal and external causes activate the
emotions to arise. The material cause for them is karmas. Simultaneously
external environment also affects their production.
Thanang Sutra, one of the Agamas, describes
ten types of instincts. The first eight are emotional or sentimental instincts
whereas last two are concerned with a special type of thought process.
Instinct of appetite Ahara samjna
Instinct of fear Bhaya samjna
Instinct of copulation Maithun samjna
Instinct of possession Parigraha samjna
Instinct of anger Krodha samjna
Instinct of Pride Mana samjna
Instinct of deceit Maya samjna
Instinct of greed Lobha samjna
Instinct of imitation Ogha samjna
Instinct of worldly desires Loka samjna
The conduct and behavior are the outcome of
deluding karma (Mohaniya Karma). Due to the influence of instinct man changes
his habits and nature. Therefore the above stated classification may be clearly
understood in the light of karmas philosophy and psychological divisions.
Outcome of deluding karmas
Disgust (jugupsa) Hatred
Feminine inclination (striveda) Sexuality
Masculine inclination (purusveda) Sexuality
Common inclination (napunskaveda) Sexuality
Pride superiority complex
Indulgence (Rati) attachment
Dissatisfaction (Arati) sorrow
The similar division is given by the
well-known psychologist Mac Dowell in psychological terms as under:
Original tendencies Original emotions
Tendency of escapism Fear
Tendency of struggle Anger
Tendency of curiosity eagerness
Tendency of search of food Appetite
Tendency of paternity Affection
Tendency of disgust Hatred
Tendency of community feeling Community
Tendency of copulation sex
Tendency of prejudice superiority
Tendency of inferiority complex Inferiority
Tendency of Earning Ownership
Tendency of Creation Creativity
Tendency of begging pity
Tendency of humor pleasure
The above given divisions can be concised
in three categories. They are:
In the first group: Instinct of appetite,
fear, copulation and possession. These exist in every creature of the world.
An instinct of appetite is found in all. On account of this a creature feels
hunger and searches for it. Really a big part of our life is motivated by it.
A number of behaviors of a living being are activated by fear. The feeling of
getting hurt creates fear. All creatures have the instinct of copulation. The
instinct of possessiveness exists in human beings as well as in animals. They
collect their requirements and want to get more and more things due to this.
The second group of instincts: Anger, pride,
deceit and greed. This group of instincts also exists in all living beings,
but in man they are well developed and expressed.
The third group of instincts: Imitation and
worldly desires. All living beings imitate at looking at others and also have
The first group of instincts is precursor of
activating these instincts. For example when a person gets hungry and if it is
not satisfies he becomes angry. To earn money people use deceptive methods. Once
you start earning greed sets in which may become the cause of violences,
corruptions, etc. In this way it can be said that the former group of instincts
activate the later or both are correlated with each other.
Origin of instincts:
Now the question arises what is responsible of
outpouring of instincts? In this respect we illustrate internal and external
Instinct of Appetite
Internal: due to the rising of feeling and
External: due to emptiness of stomach,
seeing food, thinking about food constantly and smelling the flavor
Instinct of fear
Internal: deluding karmas
External: Inferiority complex, visualizing
fearful events, continuous thinking about fear.
Instinct of copulation
Internal: deluding karmas
External: Strengthening of muscles and
organs of the body, listening or reading the copulation connected material and
constant thinking about it.
Instinct of possession:
Internal: deluding karmas
External: To have possession already, to
listen or think about possession.
In this way instincts of anger, pride etc.,
are also outpoured by deluding karmas and activated by external situations.
Impressions of instincts:
They are not only connected with our feelings
but with physical and mental functioning structure also. They influence the
external as well as internal functioning of the body. They also affect mental
states and feelings. We can understand them as:
Physical posture and gesture
States of the mind
Feelings of the consciousness
Secretion of glands
Chemistry of blood
The scientific approach:
For a long time it was believed that the brain
was the source of energy and the seat of impulses of man. Significant progresses
in Endocrinology (branch of science dealing with the endocrine system) in the
recent years has established that the passions and expressions affect the
The Endocrine system is the basis of the habit
formation in a person. The habits manifest themselves in the Nervous system and
that becomes behavioral pattern. Thus manifestation and behavior are the
function of the nervous system, but the birthplace - the production centre of
the instincts is the endocrine system. The endocrine glands control through
chemical regulators called hormones. The hormones regulate the body functions.
These chemical messengers exert profound influence on the mental states,
emotions and behavioral patterns of an individual. They are the primary movers
which generate the powerful forces, all the instincts and urges, passions and
emotions in the man. These, in turn, generate feelings and result into action
that satisfy the needs of love, hate, fear etc. Therefore it may be that
endocrine system is the basis of the instincts from the gross point of view but
actually the karmas are responsible for the production of the instincts.
How the instincts can be changed?
Now the most important task before us is how
these instincts and urges, impulses and feelings can be pacified? In this
context we can be benefit by the regular practice of meditation. There are
various methods available in this field. One of them is to visualize the bright
white color at the centre of enlightenment that is in the middle part of the
forehead. If a person practices this meditation constantly, he or she can
control his or her anger and increase his or her power of tolerance to a great
extent. The another significant process of meditation is watching the deep
breathing, which helps to pacify the intensity of the instincts. Therefore,
regular practice such meditations develops balanced and an integrated
personality by decreasing the intensity of instincts.