֋׾֐ ׾־ָߵ ֲӬ֯כִ֚֋׾ l

د֛ ־ ֲӬ֐ׯֵ֛֛ ll 206 ll

֘׾֭ ׾ָ֯ߟ ֲ֭ׯ֋ִָ֛ã֭ׯ l

ׯ֋ : ֲ֭þ֍ׯ֋ύן ll 206 ll

 

206. (The order is) the reverse in the five (sub-classes of) obstructive (Karmas); also in the group (Pinga) and other (i. e., non-group, Apinga sub-c1asses of) body-making. Karma which are bound simultaneously in its places(Sthana) And again the matter of group (Pinga) sub-classes is similarly distributed in its group sub-classes which are bound simultaneously.

 

Commentary.

 

For the places (sthana) of the body-making Karma see Gatha 521. There are 6 places in which 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 1 sub classes of body-making Karma are bound simultaneously. The 23 which simultaneously bound by a wrong-believer, human and subhuman soul, are the following:

 

(1) Sub-human condition, (2) one-sensed (3) physical, electric and Karmic (these 3 are Pinda sub-classes, the matter is distributed to them jointly), (4) unsymmetrical figure (5) colour, (6) smell (7) taste, (8) touch, (9) sub-human migratory form, (10) not-heavy light, (11) self-destructive, (12) immobile, (13) fine, (14) undevelopable, (15) common, (16) unsteady, (17) ugly, (18) unprepossessing, (19) unimpressive, (20) notoriety, (21) formation. The sub-classes are 23 in number, but the matter of body-making Karma is divided into 21 places in the above order, as the 3 Pinda sub-classes physical, electric and Karmic body Karmas take the matter jointly.

 

Let the whole matter be ~. Then divided by an innumerable part of Avali, assumed to b~ 9, the many parts i. e., 8u/8x9 should be equally divided into 21 parts, each sub-class getting 8u / 8 x 9 x 21. The balance u/8 x 9 should again be divided by 9. Many parts should be added to the last (21) formation. Thus (21) formation will have

 

( 8u / 8 x 9 x 21 + 8u / 8 x 92) .

 

The balance i. e., one part 8 ~ 92 should again be divided by 9, many parts should be added to (20) notoriety which will have

(8u / 8 x 9 x 21 + 8u / 8 x92)

 

Thus we may go on till the last balance should be given to (1) sub-human condition, which will have (8u / 8 x 9 x 21 + u / 8 x 92)

 

ׯ ϋ㌍ ֲ֤Ӭ ֤׾ֵ֯ l

ןֵ ׾ֵ֯ ։ ׾ֵ֯ ll 207 ll

֋ִׯ ϭ㟍™: Ϥֲ֭ß ֟پ֍֯ß l

ֵ֡ ׫׾֍: ֵ꿓 ׫׾֍: ll 207 ll

 

207. And in non-maximum molecule-bondage of the six (i. e., knowledge and conation abscising, feeling, body, family and obstructive Karmas there are) the for, kinds (i. e., begun, unbegun, lasting and transient). In the remaining three, i. e., maximum, minimum and non-minimum, there are) two kinds (begun and transient). In (the four kinds, i. e., maximum, non-maximum, minimum and non-minimum of) the deluding and age (Karma there are) two kinds (begun and transient).

 

Commentary.

 

The various kinds of bondage with reference to its molecular density may be condensed in the following chart :

 

Let. - Max. ~ maximum. Min. = minimum. Non-max. - non-maximum. Non-min.'" non-minimum.

 

Knowledge

Obscuring.

Conation

Obscouring.

Feeling.

Deluding.

Age.

Body. Making.

Family

obstructive.

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Max.

2

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-max.

4

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Non-min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

Min.

2

 

֋֋㌍ ֵָ֛ ֈ׾ Ӭ l

ןֵ ׾ֵ֯ ֓ֈ׾ ׾ֵ֯ ll 208 ll

סӿִ֭֟㟍™: ָύן ֟پ֬ : l

ֵ֡ ׫׾֍: ֓֟sׯ ׫׾֍ ll 208 ll

 

208. Out of the (120) sub-classes, the non-maximum bandage of 30 (detailed in the next Gatha is) of four kinds (begun. unbegun, lasting and transient); the remaining three (i. e., maximum, minimum and non-minimum are) of two kinds, i. e., begun and transient). Also in the 4 (i. e.. maximum, non-maximum, minimum and non-minimum) of the remaining (90 sub-classes there are) 2 kinds (begun and transient).

 

֋ӟֵֵָ֤ ֋֔ ֵ l

֋֋㌍ ֲ֤Ӭ ֤׾ֵ֯ ll 209 ll

ֵָ֤֭֭֟֍ ֭֙ ֟֍ l

ءִֿ֭֟㟍™: Ϥֲ֭: ֟پ֍֯ : ll 209 ll

 

209. The non-maximum molecule-bondage of the (following) 30 (is) of four kinds. The ten (sub-classes) of knowledge-(obscuring) and obstructive, six of conation(obscuring, i.e., ocular, non-ocular, visual and perfect-conation obscuring, and sleep and drowsiness), and fourteen of the deluding, (i. e.. the 4 partial-vow, the 4 total-vow, the 4 perfect-conduct-preventing passions and the minor passions of fear and disgust).

 

֋ ֢֕ ֵכӬִ֤֯ l

פ ֤㌍ ֵ ֋ ׾־ָߵ ll 210 l

֟™: ֳ ֵ: ύןֲָֻ֭֟: l

ן Ϥꟍ™ ֭֒֍ ֭ ׾ָ֯ߟִ ll 210 ll

 

210. The rational develop.able (soul) with maximum vibration, being the binder of very few sub-classes, incurs the maximum molecule (bondage). Know the reverse for the minimum.

 

Commentary.

The minimum molecule bondage is inc11rred by an irrational, undevelopable soul with minimum vibration being the binder of many sub-classes.

 

֯֌ ֤ ־ ֋׋ l

֋ ֋ Ӭפ Õ ll 211 ll

ֵõ Ϥ ֙ õ ־ ֭׭ l

֋ ֵ֭ ֬ן ™ ll 211 ll

 

211. (The soul) binds by maximum vibration, (the maximum number of) molecules of the age-Karma beyond the 6th (i. e., in the 7th stage), and of the deluding in the 9th stage, and of the remaining (6 Karmas) in (the 10th stage of) slightest passion.

 

ָ֢ ָ֐ Ӕs׋ֵ׼۴ ֐ פ l

ϵ֤ ײפ֍ֵ פ ֤־ ll 212 ll

֤֯֟ ִָ֐ ֘׭־ ֍ ߵִ l

ϵ֟ ׫ߵ֍ֵ ־ן ™ ll 212 ll

׵֋ֵֻ֧֯ן֟ ִ֐ ֤ l

ִ ִ ָ ։ ֤ ll 213 ll

֙֍ֵ׭ֻ֦֯֟ߣ ִ֍ פ l

ִ֐ִ: ֵ ָ֝֟ ll 213 ll

֔ֈ ֕ ִ֔ֈ ֟֐ִ֋֐ןֵ l

ִָ֢֯ ֤֯㌍ ״֔ ll 214 ll

֔֟ ֕ ִ֔֟á ß֐ִ֭֐ִֵ֡ l

ָ֯ϴ֢: ֯Ϥꟍ ״֣: ll 214 ll

 

212, 218 and 214. And the maximum matter is, of 17 (i. e., 5 knowledge and 4 conation,. i. e., ocular, non-ocular, visual and perfect-conation-obscuring, five obstructive, fame. high family and pleasure-feeling Karma) in (the 10th stage of) finest attachment (i. e., slightest passion or delusion); of I) (i. e.. male-inclination and 4 right-conduct-preventing passions) in (the 9th stage of) advanced-thought-activity; of the third (i. e., the 4 total vow-preventing passions) in (the 10th stage of) partial (vows); and of the second (i. e., the 4 partial-vow-preventing) passions in the (4th stage of) vowless (right-belief); of the 6 minor passions (i. e., all except the 3 sex-inclinations), of sleep and drowsiness, and of Tirthankara in (the 4th stage of) right-belief; of 13 (i. e.,) human and celestial age, pain-feeling, and the celestial four (i. e., celestial condition, migratory form, fluid body and limbs), adamantine (nerves, joints and bones), symmetrical figure, graceful movement, and the three, amiable, (sweet voice and impressive) in (the 4th or 1st stage of) right or wrong-believer. Of the (two) assimilative (body and limbs) in (the 7th stage of) perfect vows; and the maximum molecules of the remaining (66 are bound) in (the 1st stage of) wrong-belief.

 

Commentary.

 

The 66 are the three, deep sleep, heavy drowsiness, somnambulism, wrong-belief, the 4 error-feeding Passions, the female and common sex-inclinations, the hellish and sub-human ages, the hellish, sub-human and human conditions of existence, the 5 genera, the three physical, electric and Karmic bodies, the 5 figures (i.e., all the 6 except the perfectly symmetrical), 5 skeletons, (i.e., the all the 6 except the admantine-nerves-joints and bones), physical limbs, the 4, touch, taste, smell, and colour, the hellish, sub-human and human migratory forms, not-heavy light, self-destructive, other-destructive, respiration, radiant heat, phosphorescence, awkward movement, mobile, immobile, gross, fine, developable, undevelopable, individual, common, steady, unsteady, beautiful and ugly, unprepossessing. harsh voice, unimpressive. notoriety, formation, and low family.

 

״֋֐ֵ֢֕ ֜ ֋ֵ l

֢֋ ֈֲӬ׾ ֈ ll 215 ll

恴׭֐ֵ֯ԯ֟֍õ ׯִ ֭֬֍ l

֭֟ ִֵ֭֒֭ׯ ֵ: ll 215 ll

 

215. In the 1st (instant of the birth) of the fine common (completely) undevelopable (soul) with minimum vibration (there is) minimum (molecule- bondage) of the 7 (Karmas, i. e., all except the age). (And) also (there is minimum molecule-bondage) of the age-Karma when the age-Karma is bound (in the same soul).

 

֕֐s֋ ׋ָ֤׸ ֈ֕ l

ϯִ֢ ָ ϵ֤ ן֟ ֔ֈ ll 216 ll

ִֵ֭: Ӗ ׭ָ׫׭ֵֵִ֭֒ l

ϯϴ֢: ֵָ֟: ߣ ֔֟: ll 216 ll

 

216. The irrational (five-sensed) soul with changing vibration (Ghatamana Yoga or Parinama Yoga has) the minimum (molecule-bondage) of the two hellish (condition and migratory form), and of celestial and hellish ages. (And) of the assimilative (body and limbs, the minimum is) in (the 7th stage of) perfect vows. (And) the soul in (the 4th stage of) vowless (right-belief in the first instant of its birth has the minimum molecule-bondage) of Tirthankara and the four, celestial (condition, migratory form, body and limbs).

 

Commentary.

 

Ghatamana Yoga-changing vibration is in a soul where there is increase and decrease and also the sameness of vibratory division (Yoga sthana).

 

׸֯㋋ֳ־֟ן׾֐ ֜׾֐۴ ך l

״֋֐֤ Ӭפ ֋ ϾָӬ ll 217 ll

ָ֯鋸ֳ־ã: ס׾֐ ϣִ׾֐ ã֟: l

斴׭֐ ֭ן ֋ִ־ָ֭ ll 217 ll

 

217. And the fine common soul being in the first turn, in transmigration with three turns, on its way to the last of the (6012 completely) undevelopable (mean) births, binds the minimum number of molecules of the remaining (109 sub-classes, i. e., 120 minus the above 11).

 

Commentary.

 

The following chart shows the number of sub-classes of each of the. eight Karmas, which are bound simultaneously by one soul. Deluding and body-making Karmas have different varieties of numbers in. any particular stage, bound by souls in different circumstances :

 

Stage

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

Total

 

 

5

9

2

28

4

93

2

5

148

No.

Name

Knowledge obscuring.

Conation obecuring.

Feeling

Deluding

Age

Body-Making

Family

Obstructive

Sub-classes.

1

Wrongbelief

5

9

1

22

23,25,26,28,29, & 30

1

1

5

67,69,70,72,73,& 74

2

Downfall

5

9

1

21

28,29

1

1

5

71,72,73

3

Mixed

5

6

1

17

28,29,30

1

1

5

63,64

4

Vowiess

5

6

1

17

28,29

1

1

5

64,65,66

5

Partial

5

6

1

13

28,29

1

1

5

60,61

6

Imperfectvow

5

6

1

9

28,29,30,31

1

1

5

56,57

7

Perfectvow

5

6

1

9

28,29,30,31, 1

1

1

5

56,57,58,59

8

Now. Thought

5

6,4

1

9

1

1

1

5

55,56,57,58,26

9

Advanced thought

5

4

1

5,4,3,2,1

1

1

1

5

22,21,20,19,18

10

Slightest delusion

5

4

1

0

0

1

1

5

17

11

Subsided delasion.

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

12

Deluionless

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

13

Vibratory

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

14

Non. Vibratory

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Boundsimultaneously,

5

9,6,4

1 of 2

22,21,17,13,9,5,4,3,2,1 of 26

1 of 4

23,25.26,28,29,30,31,1 of 93

1 of 2

5

 

The following chart will show the number of divisions (Bhangas) in which the total number of sub-classes can be bound in each stage. For further details see Chapter on Sthana Samut-Kirtana.

 

Wrong-belief

Downfall

Mixed

Vowiess

Partial vows

Imperfect vows

Perfect vows

New thought activity

Advanced thought activity

Slightest passion

Subsided delusion

Delusionless

Vibratory

Non-vibratory

1 of 67,9 of 69,8 of 70,9 of 72,9216 of 73 & 4600 of 74.

8 of 71, 6400 of 72 and 3200 of 73.

8 of 68 and 8 of 64.

8 of 64, 16 of 65 and 8 of 66.

8 of 60 and 8 of 61.

8 of 56 and 8 of 57.

1 of 56, 1 of 57,1 of 58 and 1 of 59.

1 of 55,.1 of 56, 1 of 57, 1 of 58 and 1 of 26.

 

1 of 22, 1 of 21, 1 of 20. 1 of 19 and l of 18.

 

1 of 17

1

1

1

0

 

 

Beginning of vibratory divisions (Yoga Sthana) which are the causes of bondage according to nature and molecules of Karmic matter. .

 

֙֋ ן׾ ־֤ӟ־כ׸ִ l

ׯ ֳ ן׾ ll 218 ll

ã֭׭ ס׾֬׭ ֤֭֯֟־۬׸ִ׭ l

֟ ׯ ֟ : : ס׾֬: ll 218 ll

 

218. Vibratory divisions (Yoga Sthana are) of three kinds, birth-(vibratory division), Upapada Yoga (Sthana), increasing-(vibratory division), Ekanta. Vriddhi (Sthana) changing-(vibratory division, Parinima Yoga Sthana). As to divisions. each (division has) 14 kinds (according to the 14 soul-classes.) (Each one). again (is) of 3 kinds.

 

Commentary.

These last 3 kinds are-Common (Samanya). minimum and maximum. There are 14 common, 28 common and minimum and 42 common, minimum and maximum divisions of each of three vibratory divisions.

־֤֚֋ ־פִֵ׽ Ͼָ l

׾֐ևִ֋ ߾ִ ־ ll 219 ll

֤֐ã֭׭ ־פִֵã֟õ־ָָם l

ן֐Ԑן֐ִ֭ ߾ִ ֭֟־׭ ll 219 ll

 

219. The birth vibratory divisions (Upapada Yoga Sthana in soul-classes) should be known to be minimum and maximum in the first instant of the birth of a soul after transmigration with turnings or in straight line (respectively),

 

Commentary.

The birth-vibratory division has a duration of only :one instant namely the instant of birth which immediately folIows the last instant of transmigration. It is also the first instant of the undevelopable condition of the soul. The vibratory activity is minimum, if the birth takes place after three turnings in transmigration. It is maximum if the birth foI1ows a straight transmigration without any turning whatsoever. It should be noted that this birth-vibratory division is with reference to the developable also, because although they are partially developable, i.e. undevelopable in the first instant of their birth. yet they are uwlerormration of developable body-making Karma. They must become developable after an Antar-muhurta.

 

׸ִ֚֕֋ ߸߸֢֐֤ ״ע l

֢۬֕֋ ׸ןֳ֐۴ ־ ll 220 ll

׸ִֵã֭׭ ָ߸ֵԯ֍֟ ָ ן l

־ֵ֯ԯ֍֭ ָסֳ֐ ꬤ׭ l 220 ll

 

220. Changing-vibratory divisions (Parinama Yoga Sthana), are from (the last instant of the) completion of the capacity to develop the body (Sharira Paryapti) up to the last instant (of the age Karma). (And) for the completely undevelopable souls, (changing vibration divisions) should be known to be in the last one-third (period of their age-Karma).

 

Commentary,

Last one-third.-The age of a completely undevelopable soul is one-eighteenth part of a pulse-beat. If it were 81 years, then its first one-third part would be 27, its second one third, 9; its third, 3; its fourth, 1; its fifth, 1/3 its sixth 1/9 its seventh, 7 ; and its eight, 1/8 1 years, which is 1/38 of the original age. Therefore the last one-third of the age of a completely undevelopable soul is equal to 1/18x38 pulse-beats=1/18X6561 pulse-beats- 1/,18,098 Pulse-beats. This is the total period of the changing vibratory divisions of a completely undevelopable soul. It includes the minimum and the maximum changing vibration divisions.

 

֐֯֕߯㋋ ظ ־֟ ִ㌍ l

־֟ פ Ͼָ ۬㋋ ׯ ll 21 l

þ֍ֵׯ֟֯ ׸ ־ԡ ꟍ™ l

־ԡ ־֟־ָ ־ֵ֯ԯõ šׯ ll 221 ll

 

221. And at all instants after the completion of the capacity to develop its (body up to the end of life there can be) maximum vibration. At all instants (there) may be minimum (vibration also). In the completely uhdevelopable (soul) also (in, the period of the changing vibration there can be) maximum(and minimum vibration).

 

ӟ־֋ ֵֽ֋֋ִӟָ ן l

Ͼָָ֋ ֐֍ֻפ۴ ӟ״ ll 222 ll

֭֟־۬ã֭׭ ֵãִָ֭֭֭ ־׭֟ l

Ͼָָã֭׭ þ֍֤ ϭ֟ ll 222 ll

 

222. Only increasing vibratory divisions (Ekantanu-vriddhi Yoga Sthau1a) occur between the two (i. e., after the birth instant and beginning of changing vibratory) divisions.(And the) minimum and maximum divisions (are) in the beginning and the end of its duration respectively.

 

Commentary.

This division is called increasing because in every instant of its duration, there is an inmimerable-fold increase of indivisible units of degrees of increase (Avibhaga Pratichchheda).

Its duration is from the second instant of birth up to the fast but one instant of the contpletion of the capacity tadevelope the body.

 

׾ֳ֐ׯֈ ֐ ֐֋ ֐ l

֋׾ ֋ ֋ כ פ ׋ִ֋ ll 223 ll

׾ֳ֐֯ן֔ ֐: : ֐ԋ ï֬ԍ l

׭ָׯ ֻ֭ ã֭ ן ־׭ ׭ִֵ ll 223 ll

 

223. Indivisible units of degree of increase (Avibhaga Pratichchheda make a), Varga. (Vargas make) a, vargana. (Varganas make) a Spardhaka. And (Spardhakas make) a Gunahani. Know that every vibratory division is necessarily (composed of these).

 

Commentary. .

AU vibratory divisions are in number equal to an innumerable part of the basic line of the universe (Jagat Shreni).

 

ֻە ׋ֻ ן א֚֋ l

׋ ӏֳ֐ ߵ ll 224 ll

ֻӏ״ִ ׭ֻֿ ־׭֟ ã֭ l

׭ï֬ԍ׭ ӏֳ֐ : ll 224 ll

 

224. In one (vibratory> division, the number of Gunahani is an innumerable part of a Palya. (They are called Nana Gunahani.) And the Spardhakas in one Gunabani (are) an innumerable part of (the basic). line (of the universe).

 

֐ ־֐֋ӏ עֵֻ־ l

֐֋֋ ӏ֤֯ ֐ ll 225 ll

ï֬ԍ ֐ԋӏ ־ֻ֤֯: l

֐ԋִֵӏ֯ϟָ ֐: ll 225 ll

 

225. And the number of Varganas for each Spardhaka is the same as given (before, i. e,. an innumerable part of a basic line of the universe). And in each Vargana, the Vargas are innumerable times the basic area of the universe (Jagat pratara).

 

֐ ӏֻ ן ׾ֳ֐ l

׾ֳ֐ ִ֋ ֈ ֤֋ ll 226 ll

: ֐ ӏֻ֍ ־׭֟ ׾ֳ֐: l

׾ֳ֐õ ֝ ֭֒־۬: Ϥִ֭ ll 226 ll

 

226. And in each Varga, the indivisible units o~ degrees of increase (A vibhaga Pratichchheda) are innumerable times the spatial units of universe. And the measure of indivisible (unit of degree of increase is) the minimum increase in the (capacity of the) units (Pradesha of the soul).

 

א֚֋ֱ ֐֋ӏ ֤֐֋ l

לӏꕕפ ӏֻ ׾ֳ֐ ll 227 ll

ã֭ï֬ԍ׭ ֐ԋӏ Ϥ֐׭: l

ꋵӏןִ ӏֻ ׾ֳ֐: ll 227 ll

 

227. In one vibratory division (Yoga Sthana) (the number of all) the Spardhakas, Varganas, and (the period, Ayama of) Gunahani in the (innumerable) spatial units (of soul), (is each) an innumerable part of (the basic) line (of the universe), And the (total number of) indivisible (units of degree of increase are) the in numerable times the spatial units of universe.

 

Commentary.

Note that the innumerable as applied to the above different divisions is not the same. It is of many many kinds, see the 21 kinds of numbers in the appendix to Jain Gem Dictionary.

 

־ ߾֤֯ פ׋ֳו֤ ֜ l

ظ ָߋ ؝ כ ֤ ll 228 ll

־ô֭ ߾֯Ϥ ֬Ԑ׭ֳו֟ ϣִ l

׸ ָ߭ ح ן ֤: ll 228 ll

 

228. All (i. e., the innumerable) units of one soul divided by one and a half Gunahani (give) the first (Vargana of the first Spardhaka of the first Gunahani). Then the common difference being subtracted (at each step we get the succeeding Varganas). Each Gunahani is successively half of i1:s immediately preceding one.

 

־֐ ֟ ֤֟ l

ײפפ֐֋֋ ֐ ׾ֳ֐֍ ll 229 ll

ï֬ԍӵ׳: ֝ ֭֬־֐ß ֡ ֡פ: l

ہߵפ֐ԋ֭ ֐ ׾ֳ֐׬֍: ll 229 ll

 

229. The number of the Spardhakas (of a Gunahani) multiplied by the minimum (Varga) is the first Vargana of that (Gunahani).

 

The Vargas of the second, etc., Varganas are increased successively by one indivisible unit of a degree of increase (Avibhaga Pratichchheda), (being added to the Varga immediately preceding).

 

Commentary.

All vibratory places = an innumerable part of basic line of Universe.

 

The minimum units of degree of increase of force in the units of the soul.. Avibhaga Pratichchheda.

 

Innumerable times the spatial units of universe of

 

Avibhaga Pratichchhedas = One Varga.

Innumerable times basic area of universe

of Vargas One Vargana.

Innumerable part of basic line of

universe of Varganas = ... One Spardhaka.

Innumerable part of basic line

of universe of Spardhakas= One Gunahani.

Innumerable part of a Palya,

of gunahani = One vibratory

place ( Yoga Sthana).

 

 

All the Yoga Sthanas= Innumerable part of basic line of universe.

 

The difference between the forces of a unit (Pradesha) of soul which has got minimum force and of another Pradesha which has got the least greater force than that of minimum force is called Avibhaga Pratichchheda.

 

The minimum force in one Pradesha if measured by this Avibhaga Pratichchheda will be equal to innumerable times the units of universe. This minimum force is called Varga. The collection of such Vargas is Vargana. The soul has got Pradeshas of minimum force which amount to innumerable basic area of universe. Therefore the same number of Vargas= Vargana. This is called first Vargana.

 

Collection of those Pradesh as of soul, each of which has got force greater by one A vibhaga Pratichchheda than that of the minimum force is second Vargana; but number of Vargas will be less in this Vargami by a common difference or Chaya, which is found by dividing the 1st Vargana by 2 Gunahanis.

 

In this way the third, etc., Varganas will be greater in force but .less in number by a common difference. In this way innumerable part of basic area of universe of Varganas make one first Spardhaka.

Now all such Pradeshas or Vargas as have force greater by an Avibhaga Pratichchheda than the Pradesh a or Varga in the last Vargana of the first Spardhaka will make the first Vargana of second Spardhaka. The number of Vargas will be less by a common difference. The following chart will show the lesser number of Varganas in each Spardhaka and Gunahani:

 

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Gunahani.

256

128

64

32

16

 

240

120

60

30

15

224

112

56

28

14

208

104

52

26

13

192

96

48

24

12

176

88

44

22

11

160

80

40

20

10

144

72

36

18

9

1,600

800

400

200

100

Total

 

Here 3100 the total Pradeshas of the soul and nana-Gunahanis are 5. Gunahani-Ayama are 8.

 

Anyonya-bhyastrashi 25=32.

3100%(32 1)= 100 the last Gunahani. Each is double of the preceding one.

3100%12 7/64=256

 

For further details Sanskrit . Commentary.

 

Ӑӏֳ֐ִ֯֋ִsֹ־ l

ӟָ 㓓 Ͼָ֋֤ ll 230 ll

ϐӏ ֐֯ϴִ֝֡־ָï֬ԍ۬: l

ϭָ֟–֙ Ͼָã֤֭™ ll 230 ll

 

230. An innumerable part of a (linear) finger (is) the measure of increase of minimum Spardhakas (from one vibratory division to another). Leaving six intervals stated in Gatha following), (we thus proceed) from the minimum to the maximum (vibratory division).

 

Commentary.

The measure or increases of degrees of vibration from one vibratory division to another till the maximum vibratory division is equal to the number of spatial units in an innumerable part of a linear finger. Minimum vibratory division is found at the birth time of completely undevelopable fine common soul. The second division will be found by adding the degrees stated above.

׸ִֵظ לӏꕕֳ֐֚֋ם l

כ֯㾾 ״ ֵ֤ ֵ֤ ll 231 ll

ִֵ֥֭׸ ꝵӏ ֐ã֭׭ l

י֯ ï֬״ ֵ֟ ֵ֟: ll 231 ll

 

231. Having passed innumerable part of the basic line (of the universe) vibratory divisions, beyond the length equal to (a minimum vibratory division), we reach a new (Apurva) Spardhaka. Everyone (of a new Spardhaka) is produced by the increase of this common difference (Chaya).

 

Commentary.

The number of intervening vibratory divisions between two new Spardhakas is an innumerable part of a basic line of universe.

 

֋֋ ߾ִ֋ Ͼָָ׾ֵ l

ֈפ֤ ϯֲ ֹ ll 232 ll

ã֭֭ ߾ִִ֭־ָָ׾ֵ l

ֳ֟ן֤֯: ϻֲ Ϲִֵ: ll 232 ll

 

232. We give the quantity of these (three kinds of) vibratory divisions of 14 soul-classes with regard to minimum and maximum (i. e.,) 84 (classes).

 

Commentary.

There are three kinds of vibratory divisions, (1) Upapada-Yoga Sthana- birth vibratory division, (2) Ekantanu-vriddhi Yoga Sthana, increasing vibratory divisions, (3) Parinama Yoga Sthana changing vibratory divisions. Each of the fourteen soul-classes are of these three kinds. Taking their minimum and maximum, 84 classes in all have been described in the following Gathas :

 

֐ֻ۬ ן֋־֢ߕֵ ֢ l

۬֋㌍ ֤۬ Ͼִ֤ ll 233 ll

斴֍ײ֑֭֕ ׮־ע֑֭֕֍ ֟: l

ֲ֯쟍™ ֲָ֤֟: ll 233 ll

׋־ע֕ ֤׸־עֵ Ͼָ l

֤۬ ָ ߇פֻ۬֕ ll 234 ll

׭־ע斴֕š ֤׭־ן֍õ־ָ l

ֲ֤: ָ ֻۭ۲֍ִ֑֭ ll 234 ll

֤ם־ע־ָ ם־עײևפ Ͼָ֤ l

ײןײןן֓ן֓ ֈ״֋ פ ֈ״֋ ll 235 ll

֤׭־ע־ָ ׭־עۭ֫õ־ָ֟: l

׫ס׫סס֓ס֓ ֟: ׾֭ ־ן ֟: ׾ִ֭: ll 235 ll

֋֋ ֋֋ ֋ֈ־֤ l

פָֻ۬̾ ӟ׾ ll 236 ll

֣ ֳӖ ֳז֭: Ӗ֤֯ l

斴ֻۭ۲֍־ָ ֭־鬤: ll 236 ll

֋־ָ֤ ׋־ן֐֤ ֕߾ l

ӟ־ָ֛ ۬ ֣ ll 237 ll

 

ז֭ ָ֤֯ ׭־ע֐֟õ 斴֕߾ֵ l

֭֟־鬪ָ ۲ߟָô֭ ãã ll 237 ll

֕ ֤֤ ָ פ l

ӟָ־ָ ۬״ָ֤ׯ ׸ִ ll 238 ll

֣ 斴斴֕š ֟ ֤֤ ָ ־ן l

ϭָ֟־ָ ۲֍斴ָָ֟ׯ ׸ִ ll 238 ll

ӟָָ׾ ֯㋋֋ ׸ ӟ׸ l

ӟ־֋ ֯֋ֻ۬ Ͼָָ ll 239 ll

ϭֵָ֟ׯ : ֟ԭ ֵԭ׸ִ l

֭֟־֭۬׭ ֲָָֻ֯֘: ll 239 ll

֬׋־֢ߋ ׸ִӟ־֋ l

׸ִֽ֋ ӟָ׸ ֹظ ll 240 ll

۲׭־Ԣ߭ ׸ִ֭֟־֭۬׭ l

׸ִ֭׭ ϭָ֭׸ֵֵ֭ԯ׸ ll 240 ll

֋ ֻӏꕕֳ֐֐׋֤ l

׽֐׋ֻ ϋꋋֲִ֟ ll 241 ll

ã֭׭ ֻӏֳ֐֐׋֟֍׋ l

Ϭß֭֐׭ֻֿ ϭֳֵßִ֡ ll 241 ll

 

233-241. (1) The minimum (birth vibratory division, Upapada Yoga Sthana is) in the (one-sensed) fine (common) completely undevelapable (soul). Then (comes), (2) the minimum (birth vibratory division of (one-sensed fine common) potentially developable (soul). (Then there is) (i) the maximum (birth vibratory division) of the (one4 sensed fine common) completely undevelopable (soul), (4) the minimum (birth vibratory division) of (one-sensed) gross (common) completely undevelopable (soul)~ (5) the maximum (birth vibratory division) of one-sensed fine potentially developable, (6) the minimum of gross potentially developable. (7) the maximum of gross completely undevelopable, (8) the minimum of two-sensed completely undevelopable, (9) the maximum of (one sensed) gross potentially developable, (10) the minimum of twosensed potentially developable. After this similarly is (the minimum and maximum of) two, three; two, three; three, four; three, four; four, irrational (five) ;four, irrational (five-sensed souls). [Namely, (11) maximum of two-sensed completely undevelopable, (12) minimum of three-sensed completely undevelopable, (13) maximum of two-sensed potentially developable, (14) minimum of 3-sensed potentially developable, (15) maximum of 3-sensed completely undevelopable, (16) minimum of 4-sensed completely undevelopable, (17) maximum of 3-sensed potentially developable, (18) minimum of 4~sensed potentially developable, (19) maximum of 4-2ensed completely undevelopable, (20) minimum of 5 sensed irrational completely undevelopable, (21) maximum of 4-sensed potentially developable, (22) minimum of 5sensed irrational potentially developable-all of Upapada. And similarly the birth vibratory division of irrational, rational, irrational rational and rational. Then comes the minimum increasing vibration division of one-sensed fine4 completely undevelopable souls [namely, (23) maximum of 5-sensed irrational completely undevelopale, (24) mini4 mum of 5-sensed rational completely undevelopable, (25) maximum of 5-sensed irrational potentially developable, (26) minimum of 5 sensed rational potentially developable. (27) maximum of five-sensed rational completely undevelopable, (28) minimum of increasing vibration (Ekantimu-vriddhi) of one-sensed completely undevelopable]; (29) is the maximum birth vibratory division of the (fivesensed) rational (developable) ; (30) the minimum increasing vibratory division of (one sensed) fine potentially developable soul; (31) (the minimum increasing vibratory division of one sensed) gross (completely and), (32) gross (potentially developable). Similarly is (33) the maximum (increasing vibratory division of one-sensed), fine (undevelopable),. and (34) of fine (potentially undevelopable) ; then (35) the maximum of gross (undevelopables) and gross (potentially developable). (Then there is first) interval, (in which there are increasing vibratory divisions, the number of which is an innumerable part of the basic line of the universe, and which are found in no soul. It only means that there is an addition of so many increasing vibratory divisions to the 36th division before we multiply it by an innumerable part of a Palya to obtain the next division). (The 67th division is) the minimum changing (vibratory division) of (one-sensed) fine undevelopable souls (and 38) of (one-sensed) other (i. e.. gross undevelopable) and (39) (40) the maximum ( of these two respectively). - Then again (there is the second) interval (of the same extent as above). Then the (41) (42) (43) and (44), (2 minimum and2 maximum changing divisions of those (i. e., one-sensed fine and gross potentially) developable. Beyond this (there is the third) interval (of the same extent as above), (then in their order come from (45) to (54) the minimum of the five mobile,. i. e., 2, 3. 4 and 5 irrational and 5 rational) completely undevelopable (souls and then their five) maximum increasing vibratory divisions.

(Then is the fourth interval of the same extent as above. Then come from (55) to (64) the 5 minimum and 5 maximum) changing (vibratory divisions of the 5 mobiles) completely undevelopable. (Then the 5th interval as above). (Then from (65) to (74) the 5 minimum and 5 maximum) increasing (vibratory divisions) of (the mobile) potentially developable. (Then the sixth interval as above). (Lastly come from (75) to (84) the (5 minimum and 5 maximum) changing (vibratory) divisions (of the mobile developables).

 

(Thus there) are intervals beyond each (of the 6 groups of 84 divisions}.

 

These (84) divisions (are found) by multiplying Successively the predecessor of each by an innumerable part of a Palya. The intermediate divisions (between the minimum and maximum vibratory divisions are) equal to Anyonya-bhyasta Rashi.

 

Commentary.

 

Chart showing 84 divisions In succession.

 

 

Upapada.

Ekantanuvriddhi

Parinama.

No.

Name of soul class

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

1

One-sensed Fine undevelopable

1

3

28

33

37

39

2

developable

2

5

30

34

41

43

3

Gross undevelopable

4

7

31

35

38

40

4

developable

6

9

32

36

42

44

5

Two undevelopable

8

11

45

50

55

60

6

developable

10

13

65

70

75

80

7

Three undevelopable

12

15

46

51

56

61

8

developable

14

17

66

71

76

81

9

Four undevelopable

16

19

47

52

55

62

10

developable

18

21

67

72

77

82

11

Five irrational undevelopable

20

23

48

53

58

63

12

developable

22

25

68

73

78

83

13

rational undevelopable

24

27

49

54

59

64

14

developable

26

29

69

74

79

84

From Chart note the following :

(1). The ratio of maximum to minimum in Upapada is (Innumerable part of a Palya)

except for the one=sensed fine completely undevelopable souls where it is (Innumerable part of a Palya) ;

in Ekantanu vriddhi is (Innumerable part of of a Palya),

except for one-sensed fine incompletely undevelopable and gross incompletely undevelopable souls, for which it is (Innumerable part of a Palya) ; and in Parinama is (Innumerable part of a Palya)5 ,

except for one-sensed souls for which it is Innumerable part of a Palya.

 

The maximum birth vibratory division of a 5-sensed rational developable soul is Innumerable part of a Palya times the minimum increasing vibratory division of a one-sensed the fine completely undevelopable soul.

 

Note that in the Chart above undevelopable means completely undevelopable and developable includes potentially developable.

 

Ͼֹ ־֤ӟ־֋֋ l

ִֵ ־ Ͻע ll 242 ll

Ͼָ֟™ ־ ֤֭֯֟־۬ãִ֭֭ l

ִֵ ־ : ָ ־֤™ ן ll 242 ll

 

24:2. The minimum and maximum duration of the continuing of a birth or increasing vibratory division is one instant. And of the others (i. e. of changing vibratory divisions) is (two) to 8 instants.

 

Commentary.

This is evident because the birth vibratory division is confined to the first instant of the birth; and an increasing vibratory division also lasts for one instant, because there is an increase in it every instant. A changing vibratory division lasts at least for 2 instants and its maximum duration is 8 instants.

 

Ͻִֵ ֵפ׾ ӏא֋֤ l

ִֵע ظ ןִֵ֤֕ꐐ ll 243 ll

™ִֵõ ß ֵפֵׯ ӏӐ׋֟: l

֟:ִֵ ן ֣ ׸ ס׫ִֵֵ: ll 243 ll

 

243. (The changing vibratory divisions which have the maximum duration) of 8 instants are the fewest. And on both the sides of this duration up to (the vibrations which last for) four instants, (each division has) an innumerable times of the preceding one. And above that (are) the vibratory divisions, (the duration of which is) three or two instants.

 

 

 

 

 

Chart of vibrations like a barley.

 

 


2 instants vibrations.

 


3 instants vibrations.

 


4 instants vibrations.

 


5 instants vibrations.

 


6 instants vibrations.

 


7 instants vibrations.

 


8 instants vibrations.

 


7 instants vibrations.

 

6 instants vibrations.

 


5 instants vibrations.

 

4 instants vibrations.

 

 

 

 


֕ ߾ ֵ֟ ׾ߋ֍֕ l

׽֐׋ֻ֤׸ ֻ֐ ׾ ll 244 ll

֬ ߾ ֵ֡ ׾ֿ߭֍ֵ㌟: l

Ϭß֭֐׭ֵֻֿ ׸ ֻ֍ ׾ֿ׬֍ : ll 244 ll

 

244. In the middle, the (mobile developable) souls (are) many. On both sides, they are less by a gradually decreasing common difference. The number of the upper series (Shahikas) is greater than thet of the lower Gunahani series (Shalakas); (but in the lower series the common difference is greater than in the upper). (See note to Gathas 245-246.)

 

ןֵ ׾׸֤־ָ ִִֵ֋ꋋ l

߾֕־ ֲֵ־ פ ֢ ll 245 ll

ִֵ֡֬ֈ׸֤־ָ ہˋִִֵֵ֭ꭵִ l

߾ֵ־ ֿ֟֟֫ؾֿן: ־ן סӿ֟ ll 245 ll

֢׸ ן׸ ֋ ϛ Ͻ ֤ ֢ l

؍ן֐׋׾ֳו֤ ־ ־ ֕ ll 246 ll

֟׸ ֳ׋ ֿ: ֘ ™ ™ ֿ֟ ءֿ֟ l

׍֤ۘס֐׭׾ֳו֟ ־ִִ֬ ll 246 ll

 

245-46. In (this arrangement of) the souls in (the form of) a barley grain, (suppose) the three things (i.e., the total number of mobile developable souls, of their changing vibratory places, Parinama or Ghatmana Yoga Sthana, and of Gunahani Ayama, i.e., places in one of the series into which all the changing vibratory places are divided) to be 1422, 32, and 4 respectively; and the number of the lower and upper series (Nana Gunahani) (to be) 3 and 5 (respectively); and the (total of) the two (i.e., lower and upper) Gunahanis (is) 8; and the Anyonyabhyasta Rashi of the two is (23+25 i.e.,) 8+ 32, i. e., 40. The total (Dravya = Dhana = given sum) by being divided a little less than 3 times the number of Gunahani (in a Series is the number of the souls) in the middle of the barley grain.

________________


 

Chart for the above.

Name of series or Gunahani.

Serial No. of places

Number of souls in each place

Common difference.

Total of each Gunahani.

Upper 5th

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

26

Upper 4th

5

6

7

8

10

12

14

16

2

52

Upper 3rd

9

10

11

12

20

24

28

32

4

104

Upper 2nd

13

14

15

16

40

48

56

64

8

208

Upper 1st

17

18

19

20

80

96

112

128

 

 

Upper 1st

21

22

23

24

112

96

80

64

16

352

Lower 2nd

25

26

27

28

56

48

40

32

8

176

Lower 3rd

29

30

31

32

28

24

20

16

4

88

 

Total number of souls is 1422.

In the above chart it will be seen that it is an illustration for the greater or lesser number of mobile developable souls in the different changing vibratory places or divisions :-

Let the total number of souls=1422; of divisions=32;

Nana Gunahani or number of series=8;

1 Gunahani or 1 of the series=4 divisions.

Of Nana Gunahanis, 3 are lower, and 3 are upper.

Therefore their Anyonyabhyasta Rashi respectively-are 23 and 25 or 8 + 32 i. e., 40 in all.

 

In the middle of these 2 Gunahanis there is the 20th vibratory division. The number of souls will be greatest in it. In the barley like shape, it will be the middle part.

According to Gatha, 3 x 4 (division)=12.

A little less= 54 as per commentary.

64

57 711 1422 x 64

Then 1422 /( 12 --- ) =1422 / ------ = ------------- =128.

64 54 711

 

This 128 / twice the Gunahanis or (2 x 4 i. e., ) 8 16, gives the common difference for this 1st Gunahaui.

Then the numbers gained are 128, 112, 96, and 80.

Total=416 in the 1st Gunahani.

The other 4 upper Gunahanis will each be half of the preceding

i.e., 416 of the 1st.

208 " 2nd.

104 " 3rd.

52 " 4th.

26 " 5th.

Similarly the common difference will also be the half of the preceding,

i. e., 16 of the 1st.

8 " 2nd,

4 " 3rd.

2 " 4th.

1 " 5th.

Similarly the lower 3 Gunahanis.

This chart shows that mobile developable souls of the middle changing vibratory divisions are the greatest of all in number, of course this middle means middle or the fattest part of the barley like shape.

 

㋋֚֟֕֋ sӏsӲ֐ l

״אֳ֐ ־֤ ֵ֤־ָ ll 247 ll

ԡֵ֐ã֭ ӏõ֏ֲ֐ l

ִ֐ ׫ֵ֤־ָ: ll 247 ll

 

247. (All) the mobile developable (souls), (all their changing) vibratory divisions, half of the many parts (i. e., all but one part) of an innumerable (part) of an innumerable (part) of the (number of) halvings (Ardha Chheda of a Palya), and the (other) half and the (remaining) one part, (are respectively), (the actual number) of the two, total (of souls Dravya, changing vibratory diyisions) and the two (i. e., lower and upper) series, (which in the example taken above were represented by 1422, 32, 3 and 5 respectively).

 

֋֐֋ֻ ӏꕕֳ֐ִ l

֋ֳ֋ ־֣֟׾ פ ׸ ll ll 248 ll

֭֐׭ֻֿ: ӏֳ֐ִ֡: l

ִ֭֭߭֬ ־ԡׯ ־ן ֥ ll 248 ll

 

248. The number of Nana Gunahani (i. e., all the lower and upper series is) equal to an innumerable part of (the number of) halvings; Ardha Chheda of a Palya). And (the number of) Gunahani Ayama(i. e., the number of terms in a series) is the same all over.

 

ϋꋋ֐׋֤ ֻӏꕕֳ֐ִ l

½ָߤ ۻִӏӐ׋֤ ll 249 ll

ϭꭵ֐׋ָ֟׿: ֻӏ ֐:֡ l

Ϭßָ֭׿֟: : ׸ִӏ֟Ӑ׋ִ֟ ll 249 ll

 

249. (The ratio of the two) Anyonyabhyasta Rashi is equal to the innumerable part of a Palya, i.e., the upper is an innumerable times of the lower (Anyonya bhyasta Rashi).

 

א֚֋l ֲִֵ֯֬ ־ l

ֲִֵֵּ֯֬ ִ֋ֱlև ll 2502 ll

ã֭֯֬׭ ִ֯ϲ֬ ־۬ l

ִֵ֯ϲֵ֣֬Դ ϴ֋ֱꓔ: ll 250 ll

 

250. To find out the common difference (chaya) between the units of bondage (Samaya Prabadha) (in the same instant) in two consecutive vibratory places (Yoga Sthanas we apply the rule of three by saying that when) the Spardhakas of one (i. e., the minimum changing vibratory) place (of a 2-sensed developable (make) one unit of bondage, then (what will be the increase in the unit of bondage) corresponding to a (given) increase of vibration (from one place to another). The (three given number are respectively called) Pramana (Rashi), Phala (Rashi), and Ichchha (Rashi).

 

߇פ֯-֕֙֋֤ ֋֯㋋ l

ֽ֋ע ֽ֋ ll 251 ll

ֵۭ֯ԯ֑֭֕ã֭֟ ז֯拸õ l

™ã֭״ן ã֭׭ 鬤׭ ll 251 ll

 

251. From the minimum (changing vibratory) place of a two-sensed developable to the maximum (changing vibratory place) of a (five-sensed) rational developable, the vibratory places gradually increase (at an uniform rate).

 

לӏꕕפ ן l

Ӑ l ӏֳ֐ ֋ כ l ll 252 ll

ꋵӏ׵ִ׭ õ ֑֭õ ñ׭ ־׭֟ l

ϛӏֳ֍׭ ã֭ ן ï֬׭ 鬤׭ ll 252 ll

 

252. The Spardhakas of the minimum (changing vibratory place) of that (i. e., 2-sensed developable) are an innumerable part of the basic line (of universe). And with each place the Spardhakas increase by an innumerable part of a (linear) finger.

 

־߾ ֵӟ l

׸ ֻ֓sӏꕕפ פ ll 253 ll

־۬֬Դ֭׭ ׫ ׫ ֵ֭ l

ָ ֻ֓ӏ׵ִ ־ן ll 253 ll

 

253. By these uniform increases going on gradually, (at some place the Spardhakas become) double (of those in the minimum); (and again at a further place) double (of these double and so on); till in the end (i. e., at the maximum place their number is) (the number of minimum place) multiplied by an innumerable part of (the number of) halvings (Ardha-chheda) of a Palya.

 

֤ ӟ 㬤 כ ӕ ֯֝ l

לӏە ֽ֝ ֋Ӹָ ll 254 ll

֤ ϭ 㬤 ۬ ӵ ã֭׭ l

ꋵӏ׵ִ׭ ã֭׭ ׭ָָ֟׭ ll 254 ll

 

254. (The number of) the 1st being subtracted from that of the last and the (remainder) being divided by the (uniform) increase plus one (gives the total number of) the places. And these continuous vibratory places (are) an innumerable part of the (basic) line (of the universe).

 

ӟָ ֤ӏꕕפ ӏֳ֐ l

ӟ׸Ӹָ׋׾ ־ם׾ ֚֋׋ ll 255 ll

ָ֟ם ֤ӏ׵ִ׭ ӏ ֐׭ l

ָ֭֟׭ָָ֟֋ׯ ־ԋׯ ã֭׭ ll 255 ll

 

255. The intervening (vibratory places are) an innumerable part of that (i. e.. the total continuous places) (and they are) also (a minor kind of) an innumerable part of (the basic) line (of universe). And these places with interval, without interval (and mixed) (are each an innumerable part of the basic line of universe). And the total (of the three) also (is an innumerable part of the basic line of universe).

 

Commetary.

This is so because there are many different kinds of innumerabIes.

״֋֐ֵ֢֕ ֜ ֋ ll

֢֕֋֯ؓפ פ ll 256 ll

斴׭֐ֵ֯ԯ֍õ ׯִ ֑֭֍ : l

ֵԯזۭ֯֘֘õꟍ™ ־ן ll 256 ll

 

256. The minimum (birth) vibratory (place) (is the vibratory place) in the first instant of (the last of 6012 mean births of) a fine common (completely) undevelopable (soul).

 

And the maximum is (the maximum changing vibratory place) of a five-sensed rational developable (soul).

 

Commentary.

See the chart to Gatha 241, number 1 is the minimum and number 84 is the maximum as said above.

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(The causes of the 4 kinds of Bondage).

 

ֵכ֤ ךפ֐ ֵ֤ ן l

ϯ׸֤ۓ Ӭיפָ ۟ ll 257 ll

֟ύן֯Ϥ ã֭֟֐ ֵ֟ ־֟: l

ϯ׸֟ۓ ֭: ãן֍ָ ß ll 257 ll