Jain World
Sub-Categories of English Books
Jainism : as a Religion
An Antiquity of Jain Asceticism
Jain Asceticism in Vedic literature
Rsabhadeva and Other Tirthankaras
  Tirthankara Parsvanatha
  Jain Ascetic Sects and Schools
  Jain Scriptures
  Ecology and spirituality in Jain tradition
  Theory of Anekantavada
  Conception of soul (Jiva)
  Ajiva Tattva
  The Theory of Karma
  Classification of knowledge
  Jain Ethics and Asceticism
  The Categories of Jain Ascetics
  The Lay Adherent (Sravaka)
  Vegetarian Diet
  Jain Mendicant
  Meditation (Dyane)
  Rites and Rituals
  Jain as a Community
  Status of Women
  Spread of Jainism
  Art and Architecture
  Jainism and Science

Meditation (Dyane)

    141. Meditation (Dhyana) is to concentrate the mind on the nature of soul and substance. Umasvati says that the fixity of thought and perfect control over mind, body and speech is concentration Dhyana is classified into four types. It may be auspicious or inauspicious. Inauspicious meditation is on worldly things with revengeful and evil attitude. Such Dhyanas are called 1) Arta or unpleasant or sorrowful, and 2) Raudra Dhyana, cruel concentration. Both these concentrations are concerned with acquisition and possession of worldly objects, wealth, property etc. These are Asubhadhyanas, which should be avoided by every one. The last two Dhyanas are considered the Subhadhyanas, which are useful for the attainment of Moksha.

142. 3) The Dharmadhyana (virtuous concentration) is to concentrate on righteous and auspicious objects for the short period up to forty- eight minutes. It is of four types, 1) Ajnavicaya which consists the intensive contemplating and meditating upon the Jina's teaching, 2) Apayavicaya which firmly believes that it is the true and right teaching which will emancipate the soul from Karmic bondage and misery of worldly existence, 3) Vipakavicaya, contemplating the outcome of the Karma, and 4) Samsthanavicaya, contemplation over the structure of the universe.

143. It is also classified into four types in later period: I) Pindasthadhyana which means to contemplate on the soul in the body. The only thing to be contemplated upon is the self and its nature. 2) The Padasthadhyana is to fix the mind on incant Tory letters Arihanta etc. which may be adoration and devotion to the Istadeva Jina, 3) Rupastha-dhyana, concentration upon the form of the Jina, and 4) Rupatita-dhyana, concentration upon that which transcends form � the nature of Siddha. The knowledge of scriptures is an essential qualification of the first two types of this Dhyana.

144. The Mahavrati is placed automatically in the sixth Gunasthana Pramatta-virata. One must be then at least in the seventh stage of spiritual development, the Apramattavirata where the Pramada is suppressed. Up to this stage, he prepares the ground for attainment of Moksa. He then overcomes the subtle passions and attains the eighth Gunasthan, the Apurvakarana, unprecedented spiritual progress that is the result of the practice of Sukladdhyana. .

145. We may consider the meditation for solving the problems of day to today life. Present environment needs struggle for existence. Struggle develops tension. Tension is unavoidable. Dharma means inherent properties bestowed upon an individual. Water is cool. Fire is hot. Wind is flow. Earth is to support. Vegetation is to build body. Baby has to smile. , Mother is to feed. These are all basic Dharma. There is inherent flow of potential energy in all these Tattvas. Every thing goes on continuously without waiting for any command. Life is full of struggles. It starts with Want. This "want" is the main cause of changing natural potential energy into artificial kinetic energy.

146. Law of conservation of energy says, " Quantum of energy is constant and life span is fixed. Kinetic energy can get you the thing for the trim being but you have to come back to your normal position, i.e. Dharma where there is continuous flow of potential energy. You can- not avoid confrontation but soon come back to Dharma or you will go mad.

147. Psychiatrists give tranquilizers. Psychologists give suggestions. Doctors give medicines. Father gives consolation. Relatives give sympathy. Religious personalities show you the Multiage. And this " Autosuggestion" is meditation. Return to normal status is the Dharma. Kinetic energy can- not last long. They are to be changed into potential energy. It is Dharma. Do not come in the way of this natural change. Leave it to nature. This may be discussed in Photon Theory and behavior of mind.

148. 4) the fourth Dyane is the Sukladhyana (pure concentration) which is the highest type of contemplation when the heart is passionless and pure. It is of four types. The first two types concentrate upon the nature of the Tattvas as set forth in the Jain scripture. Even though living in the world, such monk is not of the world at all. This is possible only up to the twelfth stage of spiritual development. The last two types are possible only in the thirteenth and fourteenth stages. He then becomes omniscient and Arhat (Srutakevalajnani). Having destroyed the Mohaniyakarmas or Ghatyakarmas, he realizes the state of perfect purity called Yathakhyatacaritra and rises spontaneously to the thirteenth Gunasthana, called Sayogakevali or Kevalajnani. Then he destroys the remaining four Karmas and attains the liberation or Nirvana �Moksa, the last spiritual stage, fourteenth Gunasthana.

149. The difference between Siddhas and Tirthankaras is that the Tirthankaras possessed certain miraculous powers, like Divyadhvani. The Jain scriptures set forth sixteen forms of conduct (Purity of right faith, charity etc.) cultivated in past lifetimes to attain such stage of Tirthankaratva.